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Definitions.—Of the three forms of arrow-shaft tools only the
lithic forms will be treated herewith, leaving the bone, antler, and
wood straighteners, or "wrenches," for a later survey. The first tool,
the arrow-shaft-smoother (see Fig. 8) is defined as a piece of coarse-grained
abrasive stone (usually sandstone) which has had a groove

worked into one flat surface, this last often artificially fashioned. This
tool is primarily abrasive in function and is used in shaping the shaft,
removing irregularities which might lessen degree of balance, etc. The


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second principal tool, the arrow-shaft-straightener (see Fig. 8), is
similarly formed, but of a fine-grained rock, in which the groove often
assumes a high polish. There is no ethnographic evidence of its use
as an abrasive tool.

The following classification is but an outline, and until more data
are available regarding these tools (especially as to their treatment
and elaboration), the classification will have to remain inadequate.
It may, for example, perhaps be questioned whether one can always
distinguish between arrow-shaft-smoothers and other abrading stones
used in grinding bone implements and beads. On the whole, it would
seem that the former distinction could usually be made, for the
grooves of awl-sharpening tools are often v-shaped in cross-section.
There is also room for doubt as to the validity of the respective divisions
as listed in the order given, but present data do not justify a more
finely differentiated classification:

  • I. Arrow-shaft-smoother (abrasive)

    • a. Worked into rectangular form with usually one groove—
      often used in pairs.

    • b. Rough or rounded natural pebble with one, two, or more

  • II. Arrow-shaft-straightener (non-abrasive)

    • a. Artificially shaped; oval, rectangular, square, round, etc.;
      having a ridge either parallel or perpendicular to grooves,
      sometimes both; decorated or not.

    • b. Same as above, but no ridges; decorated or not.

    • c. Water worn or other naturally shaped stone with one,
      two, or more grooves.