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This School having been created with a view to the growing
demand for scientific knowledge in its applications to
the useful arts and to the development of the natural
resources of the country, the endeavor is made to render the
teachings of the Chair as practical as possible, while basing


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them upon sound principles of general science—thus presenting
the opportunity of preparation for such positions as
those of the miner and metallurgist, the chemical manufacturer,
the farmer, the dyer, bleacher, tanner, analytical
chemist, &c.

The system of instruction consists of a course of Lectures
upon Technical Chemistry, and a course of Practical Work
in the Chemical Laboratory, either of which may be attended

A. Lectures.

In connection with this course there is but one class, the
students attending which hear three lectures each week
throughout the session.

Amongst the more prominent subjects discussed are: The
production of Materials of very general application, including
the Metallurgy of Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Silver,
Gold, &c., the preparation and properties of Alloys, and
the processes of Electro-Metallurgy, the manufacture upon
the large scale of Acids, Alkalies, Salts, Glass and Porcelain;
the production and preservation of Food, including the
Chemistry of Agriculture, the processes of Bread Making,
Wine Making, Brewing and Distilling, the manufacture of
Sugar and Vinegar, the curing of Meat, the examination of
Potable Water, &c.; Chemical Arts relating to Clothing,
such as Bleaching, Dyeing, Calico Printing, Tanning, and
the preparation of India Rubber; the Chemistry of those
arts which afford us Shelter, embracing the examination of
Building Materials, Lime Burning, the manufacture of
Mortar and Cements, the Explosive Agents used in blasting,
as Gunpowder, Gun Cotton, Nitro-Glycerine, &c., Paints
and Varnishes, Disinfecting Materials, &c.; Heating and
the different kinds of Fuel and modes of
Burning them; Illumination by artificial means, Candles,
Lamps, the preparation of Petroleum, the manufacture of
Illuminating Gas, Matches; the Chemistry of Washing,
the preparation of Soap, Starch and Perfumes; the Chemical
relations of Printing and Writing, the manufacture of
Paper, Ink, Artists' Colors, Photographic Materials, &c.

The lectures are illustrated by suitable experiments, and
by such specimens, models, drawings, &c., as the various
subjects require. Amongst books which can be usefully
referred to in connection with different parts of this course
may be mentioned: Muspratt—Chemistry as Applied to Arts


Page 41
and Manufactures; Richardson and Watts—Chemical Technology;
Ure—Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures; Dumas—Traite
de Chimie Appliquee aux Arts;
Die chemische Technologie; Johnston—Agricultural Chemistry;
R. Hoffman—Theoretisch-practische Ackerbauchemie.

The subjects germane to Agriculture are treated of at different
periods of the lecture course, and cannot well be
brought together with a due regard to system, but the discussion
more particularly of soils, manures, &c., will be
brought forward in January or February (this year in February),
with a view to the convenience of farmers or others,
not regular students of the University, who may desire to
attend this portion of the course separately. Such persons
are freely invited to thus temporarily join the class for the
purpose in question.

B.—Laboratory Course.

This is arranged for three classes:

1. The First Class meets twice each week during the session,
on each occasion spending from two to four hours in
practical experiment in the Laboratory. A regularly arranged
course of practice in Chemical Manipulation is first
pursued; Qualitative Analysis is then taken up, and, the
means of detecting the most important chemical substances
having been learned, students are required to find out for
themselves by analysis the constituents of unknown materials
presented to them. Special attention is given to substances
having useful applications in the Arts or connected
with Agriculture. Towards the close of the session the elements
of Quantitative Analysis are taught, so far as the
limitation of time will permit.

2. The Laboratory will be open to the Second Class on
five days of each week during the whole of the working
hours of each day. A full course of instruction in Practical
Chemistry, including the Qualitative and Quantitative
Analysis of Ores, Soils, Manures, Technical Products, &c.,
will be given; and students will be assisted and encouraged
to undertake original research.

3. The Third class is one specially intended for students
of Medicine, and will meet for lessons of two hours each
once in the week for four months of the session. To this
class the practical applications of Chemistry to Medicine will
be taught—the detection of Poisons, chemical and microscopical
examination of Animal Products, urine, blood, &c.


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Amongst the works recommended to laboratory students
are: Fresenius—Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis;
H. Rose—Handbuch der analytischen Chemie (also in French
translation); Greville Williams—Handbook of Chemical
Wöhler—Examples for Practice in Chemical
Bolley—Handbuch der technisch-chemischen Untersuchungen;
Odling—Practical Chemistry for Medical

The Diploma of Graduate in this School will be conferred
upon such students as attend with diligence the Course of
Lectures and the Second Class of Laboratory Instruction,
and give evidence on examination of satisfactory attainments
in the same. For the requirements in this school for the
degrees in Mining and Civil Engineering, &c., reference is
made to the general notice of Degrees.

Very liberal provision has been made by the Board of
Visitors for the material means of illustration of the teachings
of this Chair. A new Laboratory building, of ample
size, specially designed for the purposes of working students,
has been erected, containing all necessary rooms, fitted with
double windows for the preservation of uniform temperature,
and amply supplied with gas, water, and all proper
laboratory fixtures. All needful apparatus, chemicals, minerals,
models, &c., and an unusually fine collection of
specimens illustrating the various arts and manufactures as
practiced on the great scale, have been procured from England,
France and Germany.

It may safely be said that the University of Virginia is
in this department inferior in material preparation for instruction
to no institution of learning in America, and, in
some respects, is probably superior to any.

With a portion of the means supplied by the donation of
the late Mr. Samuel Miller of Lynchburg, the Board of Visitors
of the University have established, in connection with
the Agricultural Department two scholarships, each of five
hundred dollars per annum, and tenable for two years (one
to be filled and one vacated in each year), to be competed
for at a special examination upon the whole of the subjects
taught in the department, to be held near the close of each
session—candidates for this examination to be already graduates
in the studies of the department. Scholars thus
elected will be expected to continue their studies during the
term of their scholarships, and to render such assistance in


Page 43
the minor duties of instruction, in the performance of
analyses and researches, &c., as may be required of them.
It is hoped that thus the opportunity may be afforded in
this school to such students of becoming thoroughly competent
chemists, worthy of public confidence in regard to all
the purposes which their special knowledge may subserve,
and that even during their tenure of the scholarships in
question they may be able to render useful service in the
examination and analysis of agricultural and other materials
of general interest. They will be subject to no charge for
tuition during the two years, but will be expected to defray
the expense of material they may consume in the Laboratory.