University of Virginia Library


The session commences on the 1st of October, and continues
without interruption until the 29th of June.

The mode of instruction is by lectures and text-books, accompanied
by rigid daily and stated examinations.

In each school there are three regular lectures a week, besides
many others suited to the several subjects into which the school is


Page 10




In this school are taught the Latin and Greek languages; the
Greek and Roman History, Geography, and Literature; and the
Hebrew language. The instruction is given partly by lectures
and examinations, and partly by comments on portions of the
text-books appointed to be read by the student. It embraces the
following subjects, distributed according to the classes.

I. Junior Latin.—1. General principles and doctrines of the

2. The application of these general principles in the explanation
of the formation and composition of the words of the language,
considered individually, and without regard to their relations to
other words in a sentence.

The doctrine of the primary and secondary significations of
words is considered in connection with this branch of the subject,
and is illustrated in the lectures from day to day as occasion may

3. The accidence, or inflectional forms of words, expressing
the relations in which they stand to other words in a sentence.
These modifications of the forms of words are in like manner
explained by the application of the general principles of the

4. The Syntax, or laws which govern the relations existing
between the several parts of a sentence or discourse, whether indicated
by the inflections of words, or by particles. This subject is
treated of partly in lectures specially devoted to it, partly by way
of prelections and comment on the portions of authors read in the
lecture-room, and partly in connection with the written exercises.

For the above subjects the text-books are the Professor's printed
notes, Zumpt's Latin Grammar, and Krebs' Guide.

5. The doctrine of the quantity of Syllables, and the metres.
The students are advised to use Carey's Latin Prosody, and
Munk's Greek and Roman Metres by Professors Beck and Felton.

6. The Latin authors used as text-books are Horace, Virgil,
Cicero's Orations, and his Epistles ad Diversos, Terence, and
Cæsar's Commentaries. The last chiefly with a view to the written

II. Senior Latin.—1. Prelections and commentaries on portions
of the classic authors, embracing besides the other matters
necessary for the better understanding of these, a further development


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of the doctrines of philology taught in the Junior Class.

The text-books are Horace, Juvenal, Livy, Tacitus, Krebs'
Guide and Zumpt's Latin Grammar.

2. Geography of Ancient Italy. The maps of ancient and
modern Italy, published by the "Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge," are recommended.

3. Roman History. This subject is taught by prelections, and
by examinations on the text-book, Schmitz' History of Rome. The
History of Rome published by the "Society for the Diffusion of
Useful Knowledge," Niebuhr's History of Rome, and Arnold's
History of Rome are referred to.

III. Junior Greek.—1. The Etymology, considered in its general
principles and its applications, the Syntax, and the Prosody
and Metres, are taught to this class in the same way as to the
Junior Latin.

For these subjects, Kühner's Elementary Greek Grammar is the

2. The Greek authors read and explained in the lecture-room,
are Xenophon's Anabasis, Herodotus, and a play of Æschylus or
Euripides. The Greek and English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott
is that preferred.

IV. Senior Greek.—1. Prelections and commentaries on portions
of the Greek classic authors, in the same way as in the Senior
Latin class, and embracing the like subjects.

The Greek authors used as text-books in this class are Euripides,
Sophocles, Thucydides, and Homer. The student should have
Kühner's Larger Greek Grammar.

2. Ancient Geography of Greece. The printed notes of the
Professor form the text in part.

3. Ancient History of Greece—taught by prelections, and by
examinations on the text-books. These are Thirlwall's History of
Greece, or the History of Greece in the Library of Useful Knowledge.

It is expected of the students of Latin and Greek that they shall
read in their rooms such authors and parts of authors, prescribed
by the Professor, as cannot be read in the lecture-room; e. g.:
Cicero's Epistles to Atticus, his Orations (selected), and Treatise
"De Republica;" Sallust, Virgil, Terence, Plautus, Æschylus,
Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes, Æschines,
Thucydides, Plato, &c.

As an essential part of the plan of instruction, the students of
each class are required to furnish written exercises; which consist
in the conversion of Latin or Greek into English, and of English
into Latin or Greek. The exercises are examined by the Professor,
and their errors marked; they are then returned to the students,
and the corrections stated and explained in the presence of the
class. For these exercises the classic authors are used as a text,
aided in Latin by Krebs' Guide.


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V. Hebrew.—The text-books are Biblia Hebraica, Nordheimer's,
or Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, and Gesenii Lexicon Manuale
Hebr. et Chald., or Sauerwein's edition of Rehkopf's Lex.
Hebr. Chald.

In the written translations required as a test of the qualifications
of candidates for degrees, the passages used are selected by the
committee of examination, not from the portions of authors which
have been read and explained in the lecture-room, but at will from
the classic writers generally.



The subjects taught in this school are:

1. The French, Italian, Spanish, and German Languages, the
English in its Anglo-Saxon form, and their literature.

2. The History and Geography of Europe from the fall of the
Roman Empire to the present day.

There are two classes in French, one for beginners, the other
for more advanced students; and the same arrangement is made,
when necessary, in the other languages. Opportunity is also given
to practice speaking the languages. The method of instruction is
by lectures, examinations, written exercises, and comments on the
text-books as read in the lecture-room, the principal classic authors
in each language being used for this purpose.

Two degrees in this school are required as a condition for obtaining
the degree of A. M.



In this school there are four classes.

Of these, the Junior commences with the theory of Arithmetic,
the student being supposed to have rendered himself practically
familiar with its various rules before entering the University. The
elements of Algebra are then taught, and after the first difficulties
are mastered, the subjects of Algebra and Synthetic Geometry are
pursued simultaneously.

In the second or Intermediate Class, after completing the course
of Algebra, commenced in the preceding class, there are taught
successively the theory of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry,
with the application of the former to the measurement of heights
and distances, and of the latter to nautical Astronomy, the theory
and practice of Land Surveying and Levelling, Navigation, and
Descriptive Geometry, with its applications to Spherical Projections,
Shadows, and Perspective.


Page 13

The Senior Class begins with the subject of Analytical Geometry,
and subsequently studies the Differential Calculus, concluding
the course of Pure Mathematics with the Integral Calculus.

There is also a class of Mixed Mathematics, designed exclusively
for such of the more advanced students as may desire to study
the subjects taught therein.

The course embraces the mathematical investigation of the general
laws of equilibrium and motion, both of solids and fluids,
with a variety of applications, especially to Physical Astronomy.

The instruction in each class is conveyed partly by lectures, and
partly by the systematic study of approved text-books, the student
being assisted by full and frequent explanations from the Professor,
and being constantly subjected to rigid examinations. The progress
of the student in every class is also tested by his being required
to perform written exercises, in which the principles acquired
are applied to the solution of particular problems.

The text books used are: for the Junior Class, Lacroix' or
Davies' Arithmetic, Davies' Bourdon's Algebra, and Legendre's
Geometry. For the Intermediate Class, Bourdon's Algebra, Legendre's
Geometry and Trigonometry, Davies' Surveying, and
Descriptive Geometry. For the Senior Class, Davies' Analytical
Geometry, Young's Differential Calculus, and Young's Integral

Any student entering the school has the privilege of attending
all or any of the classes, as he may elect, and if prepared to enter
an advanced class, may often find it highly advantageous to review
his previous studies by an attendance on a lower class also.



There are three classes in this school: the Junior and Senior
classes of Natural Philosophy, and the class of Geology and Mineralogy.

In the Junior class the illustrations are experimental and graphical,
with references to the simpler truths of Geometry. In the
Senior Class the subjects, where they admit of it, are discussed
mathematically. The aim of the course being a comprehensive
view of general Physics, the instructions are given chiefly by lectures,
though aided from time to time by text-books. The following
is the plan of the course.


1. General or Rational Mechanics; consisting of Statics and
Dynamics, or the doctrines of Equilibrium and Motion, and their
various applications.


Page 14

2. Mechanics of Solids.—Molecular Structure of Solids, Excitement
and Transfer of Force, Elements of Machinery, Friction,
Strength of Materials, Motive Powers, &c.

3. Mechanics of Liquids.—Molecular Structure, Resulting
Laws of Equilibrium and Pressure, Flotation, Specific Gravities,
Waves, Motions through Pipes, &c., Resistance, Hydraulic
Machines, &c.

4. Mechanics of Airs.—Molecular Structure, Elasticity, &c.;
Atmosphere, Barometers and Formulæ, Resistance, Pneumatic
Machines, Hydro-Pneumatic do., &c.

5. Capillarity and Endosmose.—Laws and Theory of Capillarity,
Laws of Diffusion, &c.

6. Acoustics.—Mechanism of Molecular Vibrations, Sound-waves,
Propagation and Reflection, Musical Vibration of Chords,
&c.' Musical Scales and Instruments, Speech and Hearing, &c.

7. Thermotics or Heat.—Temperature, Expansion, Latent and
Specific Heat, Heat of Combination, Conduction, &c.; Melloni's
Laws, Vapours, Metereology, Steam Engine, &c.

8. Electricity.—1st. Mechanical. Excitation, Conduction, &c.;
Atmospheric; 2d. Chemical. Excitation, Transfer, Effects, &c.;
Natural Sources and Application of Electricity, &c.

9. Magnetism.—1st. Statical. Induction, Distribution, &c.;
Magnetism of Globe, Dip, &c.; 2d. By Currents. Electro-Magnetic
Phenomena and Laws, Thermo-Electricity, &c.

10.—Optics.—Propagation, Reflection, Refraction of Light;
Chromatics, Dispersion, Polarization, &c.; Theories, Optical
Instruments, Photography, the Eye, &c.


1. Descriptive Astronomy.—General View of Celestial Phenomena,
Modes of Observing and Computing the Places and Motions
of the Heavenly Bodies, Theory of Celestial Motions, &c.

2. Physical Astronomy.—Investigation of Forces, Planetary
Gravitation, Perturbations, Tides, Nebular Theory, &c.

In the class of Geology and Mineralogy especial attention
is given to the structure and mineral products of our own
country. The great mineral zones are described by reference to
maps and sections, the order of stratification pointed out, the nature
of the materials shown by specimens, and the relations of all these
features to the agriculture and other resources of the country particularly
dwelt upon. Modes of exploring are taught and methods
given for the analysis of ores, rocks, and soils.

Text Books.—Reference is made in the Junior Class to the
works of Herschell, Brewster, Lardner, &c.; in the Senior, to
Young's Analytical Mechanics, and Norton's Astronomy; in Geology,
to Lyell, Trimmer, or De La Beche; and in Mineralogy, to
Allen, Dana, or any of the leading works.


Page 15


This school comprises the following branches of instruction,

I.—Graphical Mathematics, embracing Descriptive Geometry,
Perspective Mensuration, &c.

II.—Theory of Levelling and Surveying, both ordinary and

III.—Theory of Roads, Railroads, Canals, Bridges, &c.

IV.—Theoretical Mechanics, Hydrostatics, and Hydrodynamics,
as connected with engineering.

V.—Laws of Heat and Steam, Theory and Construction of the
Steam Engine.

VI.—Geology and Mineralogy.

VII.—Levelling, Surveying, &c., taught practically in the field.

VIII.—Plan Drawing, Plotting, Topographical Drawing and

The subjects named under the six first heads are divided between
the Professors of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy.
Those included under the 7th and 8th heads are taught by the
Teacher of Drawing, under the superintendence of the Professor




This subject, included in the medical as well as the general
academic course, and forming a department of the School of
Chemistry and Materia Medica, may be studied separately, or in
conjunction with the latter.

The Lectures, which are delivered twice a week throughout the
session, embrace a very full illustration of all the topics of theoretical
or practical importance in the science, and in its applications
to Mineralogy, Geology, the Chemical Arts, Agriculture, and

Beginning with an account of the phenomena and laws of Heat,
Light, and Electricity, Mechanical and Voltaic, the course next
takes up the doctrines of chemical reaction, presenting a full and
minute view of the principles of definite combination, with their
hypothetical expression in the form of the atomic theory, and illustrating
these doctrines by numerous experiments and drawings.
To this succeeds Pneumatic Chemistry, in which are discussed the
preparations, properties, and applications of the various gaseous
bodies and their compounds.

This is followed by the detailed account of the metals, their


Page 16
oxides, chlorides, and other compounds, connecting with each
metal the chemical history of its important salts. A résumé is
now given, accompanied by illustrations of the various processes
of analysis deduced from the preceding facts.

Organic Chemistry is next taken up, embracing an account of
all the more important organic acids, alkaloids, and neutral principles,
together with a view of the alcoholic, aceteous, and other
fermentations; the Chemistry of nutrition, growth, respiration,
&c., in the vegetable and animal economy; and that of soils and
manures, as connected with agriculture.

In connection with these topics, experimental illustrations are
given of all the valuable processes for detecting poisons and for
counteracting their effects. The more important operations of
analysis, as applied to ores, marls, &c., are also described and

Throughout the course, use is constantly made of ample diagrams
illustrating the chemical reactions, according to the method
of equivalents; and the bearings of the recent generalizations of
Dumas, Liebig, Kane, Graham, and others, are particularly referred
to.—Text-Book, Rogers' Turner.


The course of Materia Medica embraces:

I.—General Therapeutics, or an account of the effects of the
various classes of remedies on the organism, and their modus
operandi, so far as understood.

II.—Special Therapeutics, or the application of these agents to
individual diseases, as suggested by experience or the theory of
the particular disease.

III.—A detailed account of the medical agents, in their commercial
history, physical properties, chemical habitudes, pharmaceutical
preparations, doses, and the medical applications.

To aid the student in arranging the multifarious details of the
subject, and to abridge the labor of note-taking, a tabular digest
of all the topics treated of, is at each lecture placed before the
class. Upon this and the details of the lecture, the student is expected
to be prepared, as well as upon the corresponding parts of
the text-book.

The means of illustration in Materia Medica are unusually
ample, embracing a very full series of specimens of medicines in
their various states, and an extensive suit of colored drawings of
medical plants, on an enlarged scale. Text Book: Dunglison's
Therapeutics and Materia Medica.

The lectures on Chemistry are delivered twice a week; those
on Materia Medica once a week, throughout the course. Meetings
for examinations are held separately generally three times a weeks
Frequent examinations are held on the lectures and text-book.
in both departments of this school.


Page 17



In this school are taught Medical Jurisprudence, Obstetrics, the
Principles and the Practice of Medicine. It is composed of two
classes. One of Medical Jurisprudence, and consisting of law,
academical and medical students. The other of Obstetrics, the
Principles and the Practice of Medicine, and consisting wholly of
medical students. To allow the Medical student time to attain
proficiency in Anatomy and Physiology, Chemistry, and Materia
Medica, before he is required to apply these branches in
the study of the Principles and the Practice of Medicine, the
course is opened with Medical Jurisprudence, which is followed
by Obstetrics, and both are completed before the Principles or the
Practice of Medicine are entered upon.


The lectures on this branch show the aid which legislation and
the administration of the laws derive from medicine, and consist
chiefly of the application of the principles of medical science to
the elucidation and administration of the laws, and the legal decisions
in cases of insanity, every variety of mental impairment,
crime, &c., &c. Text-Books—the Professor's Outlines, and
Beck or Taylor.


The lectures on this branch comprehend an account of all
labors, natural, preternatural, and instrumental, the professional
assistance to be afforded in each, the treatment of a female before,
during, and after delivery, and the diseases of infancy. The lectures
are amply illustrated by specimens and plates, and all manual
evolutions, and the application of instruments, are demonstrated
on the improved phantom of Hebermehl. The students also
practice manual and instrumental delivery on the mannikin.
Text Books—the last edition of Meigs' Midwifery.


The Principles of Medicine, as taught in this school, comprise
General Pathology, and a brief view of General Therapeutics;
also Etiology, Nosology, Semeiology, Diagnosis, and Prognosis.
The nature and division of causes are first considered, which introduces
the student to their effects—diseases. Pathology proper
is next considered under the two forms, Functional and Structural
diseases. Functional diseases, being composed of elements, ultimate


Page 18
and proximate, are analyzed into their constituent parts, and
the elements considered separately before they are contemplated in
combination. Structural diseases being rarely confined to one
anatomical element, cannot be strictly distinguished into ultimate
and proximate elements, and are therefore arranged under the three
heads, increased, diminished, and perverted nutrition. After the
student thoroughly understands the nature of the causes of diseases,
their divisions, modes of operation, and the resulting effects upon
function and structure in the ultimate and proximate elements of
disease, a general view is given of the influences that can be
brought to remove or counteract their elements. And the course
on the Principles is then concluded by the consideration of nosology,
semeiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and the different modes of
death. Text-book—Wood's Pathology.


As the most natural and practically useful arrangement, all local
diseases are classified and treated of according to their locality, or
the organ or set of organs which they affect, whilst general diseases
are arranged altogether pathologically. Much attention is given to
Physical Diagnosis. Pathological Anatomy occupies a conspicuous
place in the course, and is illustrated by Carswell's large and
splendid colored plates, and, when practicable, by specimens.
Text-book—Wood's Practice of Medicine.



There are two classes in this School, one of Anatomy and Surgery,
the other of Physiology.

In the former the lectures are illustrated by the demonstration of
wet and dry anatomical preparations, by the use of the splendid
anatomical plates of Bourgery and Jacob, and especially by dissection
of fresh subjects with which the School is abundantly

A full course of lectures on Anatomy is completed before the
course on Surgery is commenced, each course embracing a term of
about four and a half months.

In the lectures to the class on Physiology are considered the
functions of the various organs of the body, the mode in which
they are accomplished and the influence of external agents, as well
as of the reactions of the organs on each other, whether as healthy
vital stimuli or as sources of disease. The Professor aims to
adapt his lectures in this class to the wants of the unprofessional
student, who may desire to include in a course of liberal education


Page 19
an acquaintance with the general principles of the Science of

In both classes the students are subjected to rigid examinations
on the lectures and occasionally on portions of some approved
text book.

Books recommended:

On Anatomy: any one of the treatises in the subjoined list:
Goddard's Wilson's Anatomy—Horner's Special Anatomy and
Histology—Pancoast's Wistar's Anatomy—Pattieson's Cruveilhier's

On Surgery: Druitt's Modern Surgery and Miller's Principles
of Surgery.

On Physiology: Carpenter's Elements of Physiology or Human
Physiology by the same author.



This department is under the immediate charge of the Demonstrator
with a general supervision on the part of the Professor of
Anatomy and Surgery, and is abundantly provided with fresh
subjects for the use of the members of the class.

As, owing to the length of the session, the medical students
attend but two lectures a day, ample time is allowed them for
private dissection by day-light.


From the foregoing announcement it will be seen that by the
organization of the University, provision is made for teaching all
the branches of Medical Science.

A joint committee of the two houses of the Legislative Assembly,
appointed to investigate the affairs of the University, having
had their attention directed to the peculiar features of this school,
appended to their Report a notice of the advantages resulting from
the direct connection of a Medical School with a general University,
from which the following statement is extracted.

1. Length of Session.—Nearly all the medical schools of this
country are located in our cities or larger towns, and have only a
nominal connection with the colleges from which they borrow their
names and chartered privileges. In these schools the usual length
of a term of instruction by courses of lectures is four months.
In order to embrace all the important branches of Medical Science
in a course of instruction compressed into so short a term, it is
found necessary to employ the services of six or seven Professors,
who deliver six lectures a day. By this arrangement the students,
if they attend all the lectures, are required to spend nearly the


Page 20
whole of the day in listening to lectures delivered in rapid succession,
and treating of diverse topics. None but those who have had personal
experience in this matter, can fully appreciate the troubles
and difficulties which beset a tyro at the commencement of his
attendance upon lectures, the fatigue of body and perplexity of
mind which he inevitably experiences in his painful efforts to hear
every lecture, and master every subject. In attempting, after the
close of the lectures for the day, to bring in review the topics discussed
by his teachers, he finds links in the chain here and there
broken, he flies from one subject of thought to another, without
adequately mastering any, and confounded by their number and
the utter impossibility of keeping pace in his private reading at
night with the lectures of six Professors, he despairs of doing more
than retaining such portion of the facts stated in the lectures as may
happen to make the strongest impression on his mind.

In the Medical Department of this institution, the length of the
session, which is nine months, enables three Professors to perform
all the duties which are elsewhere assigned to six. The students
attend but two lectures a day, and thus have ample time for private
reading and for pursuing their Anatomical dissections.

2. System of Daily Examinations.—Immediately before each
lecture, the students in every school of the University are subjected
to a rigid examination on the subject of the preceding lecture, or
on portions of some approved text-book.

Experience has shown this to be an almost necessary adjunct to
the system of teaching by lectures, and it is felt to be of such importance
that the students in other Medical Schools into which its
introduction to any adequate extent is precluded by want of
time, resort to the expedient of employing the services of private
instructers by whom they may be examined at night on the topics
discussed each day in the lecture-room. The fee paid by the
students for this necessary but extra-collegiate instruction, varies
from $30 to $50 in each case for the four months term of lectures,
and is usually about $100 for the whole year. These fees are
often received by the Professors themselves, in addition to the usual
collegiate fees.

The enactments of the Visiters of the University prescribe that
no Professor shall engage in pursuits of emolument unconnected
with the service of the University, or shall receive from the
members of his class any compensation in addition to that provided
for by the laws. They further require every Professor to reside
within the precincts, both for the purpose of assisting to enforce
the discipline of the college and of being accessible to the students
who may seek assistance in their private hours of study. These
students, then, enjoy here advantages which elsewhere are purchased
at a high price over and above the heavy necessary collegiate

3. Order of Studies.—All Medical Colleges aim to place Medical


Page 21
education on a scientific basis. Indeed, if the practice of the
healing art does not depend on general principles, embodied in
the fundamental sciences of Anatomy, Chemistry, Physiology, Pathology,
and Therapeutics, these branches of Medical Science had
as well be altogether omitted in a course of professional education.
If, however, it does so depend, the propriety and necessity of laying
a good foundation before the superstructure can be reared, are
too obvious to need illustration. This cannot be done in city
schools, in which, as above stated, the lectures on the different
branches of medicine are carried on simultaneously. This system
takes for granted that the students have "read," as it is termed,
with a private practitioner of medicine for a year at least before he
commences his attendance on lectures. This, however, is not
always the case, and when it occurs is not always an advantage;
for it is to be observed that the fundamental branches of Medical
Science are precisely those which demand for their illustration the
apparatus only to be found within the walls of colleges.

It is one of the peculiar advantages of the University Medical
School, that it unites, as may have been inferred from the preceding
remarks, the plan of instruction by private pupilage with that
of public lectures, while the length of the session puts it in the
power of the Professors to pursue a philosophical order of studies,
the students having an opportunity of mastering the elementary
branches before their attention is directed to their practical applications.

4. Conditions of Graduation.—The regulations for graduation
of the Medical schools in cities require that the student shall have
attended two full courses of Medical lectures, and shall have been
the private pupil for a year or two of a respectable practitioner of
medicine. The latter part of this requisition is, however, rarely
insisted upon, although, as above stated, the fact of such previous
study is taken for granted.

At the University a consecutive course of nine months being
more than equivalent to two courses in the city schools in respect
to the time employed and the advantageous distribution of the
subjects of study, the students are permitted to take their diploma
at the end of one session, if they show themselves worthy. The
rigidness of the examinations deters the majority of the class from
making the trial, and none but the perseveringly diligent attain
the honor, which is here truly a testimonial of attainments.

5. Location in a Village.—This has been urged as an objection,
while in point of fact it is the circumstance on which most of
the advantages just cited depend. A residence in a country village
is, moreover, free in a large degree from the objections that apply
to a city in view of the temptations to extravagance and dissipation
in its worst forms.

The importance of the advantages attributed in the foregoing
notice to the Medical Department of this Institution has been


Page 22
tested by the experience of near twenty years, during which time
about one thousand medical students have been educated.

6. It will be noticed that those students who desire to take
their diploma at a city school will yet find an advantage in
attending the first course in an institution organized on the plan
of the Medical Department of the University, by which they
avoid the expense of employing a private instructer, whose other
avocations may and commonly do disqualify him for the proper
discharge of his duties as a teacher.



There are three classes in this school.

The Junior Class studies Rhetoric, Belles-Lettres, and Philosophical

Text-Books.—Blair's Lectures, Campbell's Philosophy of
Rhetoric, (Alison on Taste), (Montgomery's Lectures), and
Kames' Elements of Criticism.

The Intermediate Class studies Political Economy, Statistics,
and the Philosophy of Social Relations, or "Ethics of Society."

Text-Books—on Political Economy, (A. Smith), Say, (McCulloch),
Tucker and (Carey); on the progress of Society, (Ferguson),
Guizot, (Taylor), and (McKinnon.)

The Senior Class studies Mental Philosophy, Logic, (inductive
and deductive), together with Theoretical and Practical Ethics.

Text-books—on Mental Philosophy, Brown's Lectures, Cousin's
Psychology, in connection with Locke's Essay. On Logic, (Mill),
and Whately. On Ethics, (Butler), Stewart, (Whewell), and

The lectures will be carried on concurrently during the session,
two a week, to each class.

The examinations will be on the Professor's Lectures and the
text-books, that is, those books enumerated above, the names of
which are not included in parentheses. Those so included are
to be consulted, but are not required to be studied as text-books.



This school is arranged into two classes, Junior and Senior.

The Junior Class studies the Law of Nature and Nations, the
Science of Government, Constitutional Law, and the elementary
principles of Municipal Law.

The text-books used by it are Vattel's Law of Nations, the
Federalist, Madison's Report of 1799, and Blackstone's Commentaries;


Page 23
in addition to which lectures are delivered on Government,
and on various topics of National and Constitutional Law, not
discussed in the text-books.

The subjects studied by the Senior Class are the Common and
Statute Law, the Principles of Equity, and Maritime and Commercial

The text-books in this class are Coke upon Littleton (Thomas'
edition), Stephen on Pleading, Greenleaf on Evidence, Chitty
on Contracts, Smith's Mercantile Law, Matthews on Executors,
Fonblanque's Equity, and Mitford's Equity Pleading.

The student, for purposes of reference, should also be provided
with Gordon's Digest of the Laws of the U. States, and Tate's
Digest of the Laws of Virginia

The design of this arrangement of the school into two classes,
is, in part, to embrace in the Junior Course those studies which
not only form an essential part of a liberal professional education,
but which, from their universal interest and importance, constitute
a highly useful branch of general education, whilst the Senior
Course is occupied exclusively with the study of the theory and
practice of Law, as a profession.

Students may attend either class or both, and those not wishing
to study Municipal Law at all, can enter for that portion
of the Junior Course which includes National Law, Government,
and Constitutional Law. Candidates for a degree are required to
attend both classes.

Comments are delivered by the Professor on the text-books of
both classes, the purpose of which is to supply what is deficient,
and explain what is obscure in the text, and to induce a thorough
practical comprehension of the subject under consideration. In
his observations on Municipal Law, the Professor refers to the
leading cases and authorities, American and English, which tend
to illustrate the topic in hand, and particularly explains, in its
approprate connection, the Statute Law of Virginia, and of the
United States, and its effect on the preöxisting law. Each daily
lecture is preceded by an examination on that of the preceding
day, together with its text.

A moot-court is instituted in connection with the school, upon
a plan conforming minutely to the organization of the courts of
the country, the exercises of which are directed, under the immediate
superintendence of the Professor, with a view to familiarize
the student with the practical details of his profession. His
opinion is required on supposed cases; he is called upon to devise
and to institute remedies, by suit or otherwise, to conduct suits at
law, and in chancery, from their inception, through all their stages,
to draw wills, conveyances, and assurances; and, in short, to
discharge most of the functions devolving upon a practitioner of
the law.

Graduates in the school of Law, have the title of Bachelor of


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Laws, and, by Act of the Legislature, the diploma is
equivalent to a license from the Judges.