University of Virginia Library


Page 154


When the Late Bonitians scrapped their grandiose plan for an eastward
extension of their village they immediately began a substitute.
They built an addition that commenced outside Room 297, on the
north, and extended around to Room 176 at the southeast corner.
That the results should balance earlier additions on the west side of
the pueblo may be only fortuitous, but together the two created the
unique and harmonious groundplan that is peculiar to Pueblo Bonito
(fig. 2).

No time was lost between abandonment of one project and
initiation of the next. No blown sand had collected upon the abandoned
foundations before the new exterior wall was started. This
new wall had its own independent foundation, built in the same
manner as those of the discarded series and of the same materials.
Furthermore, the new foundation approximates in height those it
replaced, tops off at the same level with them, and, wherever they
come in contact, abuts the older units.

It was outside Room 184, while clearing away a 2-story-high
accumulation of fallen stonework and blown sand, that we unexpectedly
came upon these older, abandoned foundations (pl. 41,
upper). Some of those older units, loosely built of mud and friable
sandstone, extended under the outer wall of 184 and were abutted
by its 22-inch-high foundation. Two feet lower, or about 4 feet from
the surface, we discovered the pavement-smooth silt deposit that led
to and under the Braced-up Cliff terrace (herein, p. 143; Judd, 1959b,
p. 503). Thus an average 2 feet of blown sand containing a scattering
of clay pellets and occasional potsherds had collected upon that
buried silt stratum before Late Bonitian architects initiated their
substitute for the east-side addition they had so recently abandoned.

A hundred feet to the west, outside Room 189, the buried silt lay at
comparable depth but here constructional waste, blown sand, and
fallen masonry above the outlying foundations was 2 to 2½ feet
deeper (pl. 44, left). Hence the higher surface elevation shown on
our cross-section C-C′ (fig. 15) as compared with that outside Room
184. Overlying all were fragments of the cliff-fall Jackson (1878,
p. 442) had noted in 1877 and Mindeleff had photographed 10 years

The foundation prepared for this substitute addition had its


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beginning a few feet east of the point where the abandoned foundation
complex began. However, instead of starting against the secondtype
exterior as its predecessor had done (pl. 43, lower), this newwall
foundation was built just inside the abandoned units and the
new-wall masonry merges with the older (pl. 43, upper).

The line of this fourth-type replacement is still clear after 800
years. From a point about 6½ feet above the foundation of Room 297
it slants upward and eastward to pass between the west ventilator and
a formerly blocked door in the second story of the unexcavated and
unnumbered room next east of 297 and on to ceiling level of the
third story (pl. 28). The lower edge of this same fourth-type veneering
extends down to the 22-inch-high wedge that began our Northeast
Foundation Complex and continues eastward at the same level to conceal
the former third-type exterior.

This concealed exterior, I am reasonably sure, likewise began at
or near Room 297. Doubt remains because the three rooms between
295 and 297 are unexcavated and abutting foundation units of the
Northeast Complex precluded close digging on the outside. Still,
third-type foundations under Rooms 88 and 295 tend in that direction
(fig. 5) and, despite use of more laminate than friable sandstone,
much of the concealed stonework has a pre-fourth-type appearance.

Treasure seekers sometime prior to 1887, as dated by Mindeleff's
photographs, laid bare this concealed masonry when they dug holes
in the outside wall at intervals of 2 to 5 feet between Rooms 14b and
187. Since we repaired all this vandalism during the course of our
investigations it is important to note here the thickness of the concealing
stonework. It is 12 inches thick outside the first unexcavated
and unnumbered room east of 297; 27 inches thick at the west end
of the next room (pl. 50, left); 41 inches at the extended partition
between the second and third rooms east of 297 (pl. 51, upper); and
45 inches thick a few feet beyond.

We should note, also, that while the added stonework outside the
first and second unexcavated rooms east of 297 is solid at ground level
a wedgelike open space remains next on the east, between the concealed
wall and its fourth-type substitute. This open space, too
narrow for living quarters, was repeated in the second and third
stories. Without bonding stones tying them to the earlier building,
the substitute wall and its abutments have since settled outward
(pl. 52, left).

But west of this point, where the newer stonework veneers the
older, tie poles were employed to prevent separation. The architects


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of this fourth-type addition inserted neatly trimmed pine poles,
2 to 3 inches in diameter, into holes purposely made in the concealed
wall and brought them forward horizontally through the added stonework
to be cut off flush with its exterior (pl. 53). Both the diameter
of these tie-poles and the intervals between them increase as the
fourth-type veneering continued eastward until, approaching Room
295, it was able to stand without anchoring. We saw no longitudinal
timbers embedded in this added stonework and no evidence of former

Another interesting fact disclosed by these vandal-cut openings
is that first-story ventilators in the older, third-type wall had
been extended through to the outside and that a long repository was
provided transversely over at least three of them (pl. 50, right).
The three repositories visible to us lay against the inner wall; all
were empty, but their length suggested to us at the time (1923)
that they had been designed to receive lengthy objects of some sort,
perhaps one or more of the so-called "ceremonial sticks," fragments
of which we had previously recovered throughout Pueblo Bonito
(Judd, 1954, p. 268). The correctness of this surmise was later
verified when Lewis T. McKinney, then custodian of Chaco Canyon
National Monument, salvaged a lone example, 42½ inches in length
despite a missing tip, from the north-wall wreckage of Room 293
following collapse of the Braced-up Cliff on January 22, 1941.

Two lesser offerings—turquoise chips, shell and bone beads, an
arrowpoint, and a pair of abalone pendants (U.S.N.M. Nos.
336026-7)—were found among fallen masonry outside Room 186.
One of the two pendants apparently had fallen from the second
story, but both obviously had been bedded in the new masonry at
time of construction. A similar sacrifice—two figure-8 bone beads
and a pinch of turquoise chips—was found among building stones
toppled from the east side of Late Bonitian Room 178B, and still
another (Field No. 2353) had been buried in the north wall of
Room 90. Placing sacrificial offerings in new stonework is an old
Pueblo custom.

The foundation prepared for this latest revision of the outer northeast
arc of Pueblo Bonito, with its extended ventilators and built-in
repositories, is like all other local foundations—chance chunks of
sandstone loosely bedded in adobe mud. Height and width may vary
but mud and sandstone remain the component materials. At Room
184 the foundation is 22 inches high; it is 18 inches high at Room
187 and 15 at Room 188, adjoining. Our search for the beginning


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of it farther west, where fourth-type masonry dovetails into secondtype
(pl. 53), was defeated by the westernmost extension of the
abandoned Northeast Foundation Complex. Preservation of this
abutting 22-inch-high section, its top 54 inches above the foundation
of Room 297, seemed more important at the time than discovery of
the point where its successor foundation began.

But the fact remains that this successor extends eastward at the
same level as the 22-inch-high section and abuts other units of the
abandoned complex as they continue under the new outside wall
and end, subfloor, against the plastered masonry of an earlier thirdtype

We made no effort to follow every extension continuing from
the outside but most of them are represented on figure 11. Those
underlying Room 186, at the east end of the high north wall as it
stood prior to collapse of the Braced-up Cliff are especially illuminating.
Here a one-layer brown adobe floor had been spread directly
upon six units of the old intrusive foundations. Three of these lie
east and west; three, in the opposite direction.

Most prominent of the six averages 31 inches wide by 17 inches
high; its south face emerges from under the northeast wall 2 feet
from the east corner and passes under the northwest end 18 inches
from the west corner. Paralleling this principal unit is a second, 25
inches wide at its northwest end and 29 inches wide at the other.
Where this foundation continues under the northeast wall of 186
the face of a third unit takes off to disappear beneath the northwest
wall 13 inches from its north corner. Here, joining the third unit
and the second, is a block of foundation stonework 10 inches wide
against the third unit and 15 inches wide against the second.

Three lesser subfloor foundations extend southwestwardly from
the principal one, two of them to continue under the east half of
the southwest side while the other abuts an earlier underlying wall.
The first of these three, 24 inches wide, joins the principal eastwest
foundation 21 inches from its east end and extends under the
southwest wall 26 inches from the south corner. The second unit,
which averages 22 inches wide by 14 inches high, joins the main
east-west member 10 feet 4 inches from its east end and continues
under the southwest wall at a point 7 feet 5 inches from the south
corner. It is the westernmost of these three lesser foundations that
abuts the plastered face of an older, plastered and partly razed subfloor
wall before the latter continues westwardly presumably to underlie
the third-type wall now separating Rooms 187 and 293.


Page 158

Plate 46, lower, illustrates this and other features beneath the floor
of Room 186. The partially razed corner of Room 267 as originally
constructed rises vertically 52 inches above its 11-inch-high foundation
and is abutted from the west by the partially razed and plastered
wall noted above. Built against this latter is the westernmost (under
the gloves) of the 3 lesser units that extend southwest from the
principal east-west subfloor foundation. Above all is the present
southwest side of Room 186, its eastern half resting upon a contemporary
foundation built against the east angle of the old 267 corner.

These several walls and foundations, above and below floor level
in 186, are variously oriented, but this fact apparently meant nothing
to the Late Bonitian builders. The plastered wall abutting the west
face of the former 267 corner, for example, lies N. 62° W., a difference
of 2° from the later wall above.

All these descriptive details may seem repetitious, complicated,
and confusing. But, in trying to convey some understanding of the
abandoned foundation complex and the manner in which many of its
units continued under the outer wall of the village to end against
earlier walls within, I find myself quite unable to avoid confusion
and repetition. Consequently I deliberately omit much of our subfloor
data from 186 and adjacent rooms and will let figures 5 and 11
tell the story as best they can.

We traced some of these abandoned foundations beneath the floor
of Room 187 and found them ending against its south, or southwest,
wall which was originally built of third-type masonry. We made no
observation in Rooms 188 and 189 but one of the subfloor units in
Room 184 continues independently southward to 175. Throughout
its length this subfloor unit averages 19 inches high but its width
varies from 24 inches in Room 259, to 30 inches at the south end of
Room 243, to 26 inches in 225, and 24 inches where it meets the south
foundation in 175.

Here, at its south end, this long foundation unit, presumably one
of the abandoned outside series, rests upon 2 feet of clayey sand
covering a smooth silt surface. Forty-seven inches lower, or 7½ feet
below floor level, we came upon a second silt surface in which were
embedded a number of miscellaneous potsherds not specifically identified
in my notes. That lower silt stratum and the 4 feet of village
waste that overlay it undoubtedly mark an extension of the trashfilled
channel fronting the pueblo (figs. 7 and 24, lower).

In Room 225, adjoining 175 on the north, foundations vary in
height from 10 inches on the south to 17 inches on the east but all


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top off 5 inches below floor level. That on the east is offset 2 inches
while the other three are actually inset, 5 inches at the south and 2
inches at the west and north—variations that reveal the casualness
of Late Bonitian foundation builders.

A test pit 9 feet 2 inches deep in the northeast corner of Room 225
disclosed five silt strata, each overlain by village waste and sand of
diverse character and each sloping to the south and east. From that
pit we gathered 548 miscellaneous potsherds, mostly Old Bonitian
varieties, but 30 (5.5 percent) were Early Hachure and 16 (2.9
percent), Corrugated-coil Culinary. The uppermost of those five
silt layers continued eastward under Room 177 and beyond; on it,
38 inches below the floor of 225, we noted the firm imprint of a right
human foot, 8 inches long and 4 inches across the ball.

Sheer curiosity demanded further inquiry outside Room 177. Here,
13 inches below its 20-inch-high foundation and about 5 feet out
from the wall, we came upon an unplastered, pot-shaped storage cist
50 inches deep by 21 inches in diameter at the mouth and 46 inches
in maximum inside diameter. The bottom was scarred by various
rootlike passages leading downward in diverse directions.

Just for the record, two ventilators appear in the broken east wall
of Room 177 5 feet 2 inches above its foundation. The latter is
inset 3 inches, and piled against it were 10 inches or more of mortar
droppings overlain by stratified sand 5 feet deep next the wall but
increasing to a depth of 8 feet a short distance to the east. At Station
2, 500 feet farther out, only 10-12 inches of blown sand overlie
units of the abandoned foundation series exposed at that point
(fig. 11).

Room 177 and the two inner rows adjoining it on the west are part
of the fourth-type addition that extends north to 184, 185 and beyond.
In the south corner of Room 186 a door 28 inches wide by 37 inches
high (to eight 2-inch lintel poles) gives access to Room 261. Although
the sill slab is only 27 inches across, it lies 20 inches above floor in 186
and 25 inches in Room 261, a difference of 5 inches. Both the wall
separating these two rooms and the block of masonry filling the northwest
angle of 261 to ceiling level (pl. 52, right) are of fourth-type
construction and stand upon a one-layer adobe floor that immediately
overlies units intruding from the abandoned Northeast Foundation

One of these foundation units crosses 261 subfloor to abut its
southwest wall just where a solid section was added to parallel the
northeast side and thus begin a second row curving southeast to


Page 160
Rooms 225 and 175. At this junction, 41 inches below the floor of
Room 261, a 15-inch-wide foundation offset marks approximate
floor level of Rooms 265 and 267 as they were originally built (pl. 46,
upper). Apparent work surfaces 10 and 24 inches above that offset
are suggested by trampled constructional debris that diminishes
in thickness in proportion to distance from the wall. That Late
Bonitian construction did not always keep pace with building plans
is again demonstrated in the east corner of 261 where a previously
completed ventilator was reduced to a width of 4 inches by the abutting
southeast wall.

Rooms 265 and 267 are part of a 14-room block that forms a
conspicuous rectangle in the east half of the village. The studies we
made inside and outside that rectangular block suggest its 14 rooms
were originally constructed of second-type masonry but were subsequently
and repeatedly changed. Floor level in Rooms 265 and 267,
as represented by their foundation offset, was 3½ feet lower than
that of Room 261. The indicated floor level of Rooms 247 and 252,
farther down the rectangle, was 5 feet 2 inches below that of Rooms
256 and 258, adjoining, and the original floor of much-altered Room
245, at the southeast corner of the 14-room block, may have been a
full 6 feet lower than that of 244, next on the east.

Room 244 is a large room and the remains of earlier structures
lie underneath. Its Late Bonitian builders utilized walls already
standing on the south and west. Its east wall overlies the arc of
a well-preserved second-type kiva 10 feet deep. At time of excavation
I described the west-wall masonry of 244 as third-type although
obviously patched areas reflected the fourth-type technique of the
north and east sides. Plaster on these latter stops at floor level while
the original west-side plaster terminates with a floor at depth of 4 feet
9 inches, 26 inches below the sill of a former door, while the masonry
itself continues another 13 inches and there rests upon a wall remnant
built on a 2-foot-high foundation the outer 4 inches of which
is a veneer of mud and sandstone spalls. A floor associated with
this remnant lies at a depth of 6 feet 9 inches but we carried our
exploratory test 3 feet deeper without learning the significance of all
we encountered.

Excavation of Room 239, on the opposite side of the wall, and
subfloor inquiries in neighboring rooms showed, in part at least, why
we found this section of Pueblo Bonito so perplexing. Evidence of
reconstruction and the Late Bonitian propensity for reusing stones
from razed walls was to be seen everywhere. We cleared 239 to what

No Page Number

Fig 15-Cross section C-C' from the Braced-up Cliff through
Room 141 and the West Mound trench on a diagonal. Sub-court
structures indicated by masonry type. (From the original
survey by O.B. walsh.)

No Page Number


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may have been a floor, or work surface, 9 feet 8 inches below ceiling
level of Room 242, next on the east. Northwest corner masonry
still stands 19 feet 3 inches above that floor (pl. 38, right). Both
right and left, salvaged building blocks are to be seen, some protruding
at irregular intervals as though to anchor the new stonework to
the fill.

A 10-inch log, its ends embedded north and south, parallels the
west end of 239 at a height of 5 feet 8 inches. Two 4-inch poles
appear in the north wall at 10 feet with no seatings opposite and a
row of five comparable pole holes, each with slab lintel, appears 4 feet
higher, again without seatings in the stonework opposite. At a height
of 8 feet 4 inches above floor level a slab-topped offset separates
the external stonework of original Kiva D from that of its successor.

At the north end of Room 242, which adjoins 239, the floor of an
abandoned Late Bonitian second-type kiva lies at a depth of 9½ feet.
Opposite, at the south end, a test to a silt layer 1 foot deeper revealed
a succession of wind- and water-borne deposits on one of which, at
depth of 8 feet 8 inches, stood a 4-foot-high bank of clean sand as
smooth and vertical as though piled against a former wall. This
feature continued eastward beyond room limits and was paralleled
at a distance of 32 inches by another like bank.

In Room 244 a second and later coat of west-wall plaster rounds
off to a floor at depth of 31 inches and built upon this, paralleling
the west side at a distance of 2½ feet, is a 20-inch-high section of
fourth-type masonry. A like section, perhaps laid at the same time,
underlies Room 256, next on the north, and continues eastward under
257 and 181 and thence to the outside. Work surfaces at depths of
12 and 27 inches presumably reflect construction of this fourth-type
wall and the later north and east sides of the room.

Like others of its period, Room 244 had been stripped of its
furnishings, but three beautifully inlaid bone scrapers, perhaps a
deliberate sacrifice by the departing owners, were left side by side
at midfloor (Judd, 1954, p. 148). Over them was a thin layer of
blown sand and then the charred remains of three pairs of east-west
beams, the pine poles, and the cedar splints of the former ceiling.
On that same floor bare-footed builders had left two imprints, one in
the southwest corner and another in the northeast. The latter, for
the right foot, measured 8½ inches long by 3¾, a bit longer but narrower
than the imprint we had noted at a depth of 38 inches in
Room 225.

A contemporary of Room 244 is Room 256, adjoining, and 256


Page 162
was divided diagonally by a wattled partition that maintained access
from roof level of Kiva F, through Rooms 250 and 251, to Room
257, also divided, and to storeroom 181. Before introduction of the
Room 257 wattled dividing wall—13 posts, 2-3 inches in diameter,
with imprints of willows bound to south face—the door to Room 182
had been blocked and plastered over and the northwest corner door
(pl. 15, right), silled with hewn pine planks, had been sealed from
Room 258. A 256 beam fragment (JPB, No. 10) provided Dr. Douglass
with a tree-ring date of A.D. 1050 + x (Smiley, 1951).

The partition dividing Room 256 was supported by nine posts to
which willows had been bound horizontally at intervals of about 15
inches and held in place by other willows lashed vertically to the
posts (pl. 25, right). Plastered with mud on the north face only
and still standing 5 feet high at its east end, this wattlework obviously
was designed to hold in check an accumulation of occupational
debris piled behind it. One of its nine supporting posts pierced
a subfloor foundation carrying fourth-type masonry as it continued
from Room 256 eastward under 257 and 181. Vastly superior to the
crude post-and-mud walls of Old Bonito, these wattled partitions in
Rooms 256 and 257 are more in keeping with the vertical jacalwork
I have seen in Betatakin and Keet Seel, out in the Kayenta Country.

Fourth-type masonry at its best is found in this section of Pueblo
Bonito. Portions of first-, second-, and third-story walls still stand
and their ceilings, doorways, and ventilators reflect the very acme of
Late Bonitian architectural experience. Friable sandstone, the chief
component of second-type masonry, has here been almost wholly
superseded by laminate sandstone, preferred because of its greater
hardness and natural cleavage. As always in Late Bonitian walls, the
hearting is rubble; the exterior, laminate blocks fitted so snugly that
little mortar appears. But, however neat and precise this fourth-type
masonry, it was invariably covered with brown adobe mud.

Ceilings in this latest addition were a composite of selected pine
logs and poles, split cedar and cedarbark, with mud to cover all and
provide a floor for the room above. One or two transverse beams
sufficed for the average room; more in the larger. The ceilings of
Rooms 228 and 245 were supported by two pairs of beams; that of
244 by three pairs.

The ceiling of Room 227, the lone survivor, is fairly typical of
fourth-type Late Bonitian ceilings. A single pine beam, 10 inches
in diameter, crosses the room from east to west at a height of 8 feet
5 inches (pl. 54, upper). Upon that beam and at right angles to


Page 163
it are 40 selected ceiling poles averaging 2½ inches diameter and
placed close together, butt and whip ends alternating. Upon the poles
and again at right angles to them is a layer of red cedar splints, 3-4
feet long and perhaps a couple inches wide, held in place by narrow
splints above and lengthwise of the poles and bound to them by
yucca-leaf thongs. Layered cedarbark covers the bound splints and
then about 3 inches of mud, the floor of Room 227B. Close beside
that great timber the butt of a comparable beam, ringed with a flint
chip to limit axwork, protrudes 4 inches from Room 227-I.

In like manner two other beams, 9 and 9½ inches diameter, project
through the south wall 3 feet or more from Room 173. These 173
beams (JPB, Nos. 2 and 03) were felled in A.D. 1078 and 1076
(Smiley, 1951 revision), whereas the main east-west beam and the
butt end from 227-I were cut in 1075 and 1053 + respectively. These
four readings may represent construction dates or they may identify
timbers salvaged for reuse here. As will be noted from the table on
page 35, tree-ring dates from this latest addition to Pueblo Bonito
cover a bracket of 79 years. Reuse seems obvious. Despite proximity
of the Chaco forests, I suspect the ancient Bonitians were just as reluctant
to discard a still serviceable beam as are present-day Pueblos.

Room 227, with its surviving ceiling and banded fourth-type
masonry, once included the Kiva D corner I have numbered 235 for
the latter's lower east side, below the rebuilt upper portion, is a
continuation of that in Room 227 and its south side contains irregularly
protruding blocks of laminate and friable sandstone in the
manner of Late Bonitian stonework intended to be concealed. We
repaired and replastered a large hole some predecessor had broken
through the north wall of Room 227 and the National Park Service
in 1926 covered the roof with a protective layer of concrete. Rooms
227 and 227-I were capped by a single second-story dwelling.

Doorways connecting groundfloor fourth-type rooms are generally
straight-sided and true (pl. 14, right). Apparently planned in advance,
their jambs usually began on top of the foundation and were
carried upward with the walls, leaving the lower 12-20 inches to
be filled in later when the sill-slab was positioned. It was the coarser
quality of this below-sill stonework that prompted me, perhaps
wrongly, to describe many Late Bonitian doorways as partly blocked.
Normally, lintels for these doors consist of 8 or 10 selected pine
poles bound together with split-willow or yucca leaf thongs and front
poles, at least, normally extended a foot or more to either side, completely
concealed in the wall masonry.


Page 164

In many instances the chosen sill-slab was placed and its ends
embedded in the jambs at time of construction, but occasionally, as
in the case of the door connecting Rooms 173 and 227, a later change
seemed desirable (pl. 15, left). Here the occupants clearly had removed
the lower portions of both jambs in order to seat an inverted
Old Bonitian tabular metate 21 inches wide. This substitute sill was
placed to project 3½ inches into Room 173 thus leaving on the opposite
side of the 25-inch-thick wall a difference of 7½ inches to be
leveled with slab fragments. Width at still level is 2½ inches greater
than at the lintels, an inverted-keystone practice Late Bonitian architects
employed in decreasing frequency with each successive advance
in the quality of their masonry.

In this doorway between Rooms 173 and 227 secondary lintels at a
height of 28 inches, the space above packed with mud and sandstone
chips, suggest that the inside room was probably utilized for storage.
Normally, the reverse would be expected. In most instances, groundfloor
rooms in the outer row connect with those of the second row
but not with each other (fig. 6). As may be learned from Appendix
B, these connecting doors were customarily provided with
secondary lintels and jambs that slanted outward to support a doorslab
placed from the second row. This fact would, presumably, identify
most outer-row rooms as granaries or storage places when Pueblo
Bonito was inhabited although inner rooms were sometimes similarly
equipped (pl. 13, left).

For some reason not disclosed by our investigations, a surprisingly
large proportion of Late Bonitian wall openings, both doorways and
ventilators, were wholly or partially closed with masonry. I suspect
a climatic factor but this, after all, is purely a guess. The two
Room 259 doors, for example, had been sealed and plastered over
from within leaving access thereafter by means of a ceiling hatchway
of which we saw no certain trace. Four doors in Room 258; including
that in the southeast corner leading to Room 257—the only firststory
diagonal doorway of which we have record in Pueblo Bonito—
likewise had been closed during occupancy.

The corner door, providing access diagonally from one room to
another, was a tardy innovation of the Late Bonitians. I have record
of seven, all in this fourth-type addition and all in second-story rooms
with the exception of that last mentioned, connecting Rooms 257 and
258 (pl. 15, right). That this latter was an afterthought, built while
the two rooms were occupied, is established by the fact that construction
blocked a former ventilator between 258 and 259, a circumstance
reminiscent of another partly blocked ventilator in Room 261.


Page 165

Two rooms, 225B and 242B, boasted two diagonal doors each.
Those in 225B extended northeast and southeast; those in 242B,
northeast and northwest. Direction obviously was not the determining
factor in location. A lone example in the northwest corner of
Room 173B (pl. 15, left) opens corner-wise into 228B, one of two
fourth-type dwellings whose first stories were deliberately quartered
to provide support for the elevated ventilator shaft of remodeled
Kiva C.

When Pepper's field notes became available, his description of
Hyde Expedition Room 73 (Pepper, 1920, p. 258), despite the mislabeling
of figure 89 (ibid., p. 204), was readily identified as the
one we had previously numbered 228B. There is no other secondstory
room in the whole pueblo featuring both a southeast corner
doorway and a former T-shaped door in the middle east wall, successively
reduced and ultimately blocked. The wall plaster seen in
Pepper's illustration had fallen prior to 1920 but identification is

Similarly, our Room 229 is identifiable as the Hyde Expedition's
Room 24 the first story of which, like 73, had been quartered and
rubbish-filled when Kiva C was raised to the second-story level.
Since our notes supplement Pepper's in several respects it seems desirable
to call attention briefly to certain features previously overlooked.

In the first place, both 228 and 229, upper and lower, were originally
dwellings with walls of banded fourth-type masonry and plastered.
Subsequently, to provide for alterations to Kiva C, both
groundfloor rooms were quartered by hastily built stonework that
rests upon the original adobe floors, abuts the plastered side walls,
and terminates at the second-story floor offset. In both rooms the
quartering partitions are composed chiefly of salvaged blocks of
dressed friable sandstone and remain unplastered; individual stones
protrude step-like at irregular intervals. In both rooms the northsouth
partitions abut previously blocked doors to Rooms 171 and
172 or crowd upon the exposed ends of 171 and 172 beams. One of
these latter (JPB, No. 58), from Room 172, was felled in A.D. 1061.

Introduction of the quartering stonework rendered both 228 and
229 uninhabitable so the families moved to the second story and
utilized the lower units as dumps for household trash. From this
waste the Hyde Expeditions recovered outworn sandals, broken earthenware
vessels, fragments of basketry and matting. The lower walls
in Room 229 had been whitewashed. Subfloor tests we made in the


Page 166
southeast quarters of both rooms disclosed possible work surfaces at
depths of 14 inches, sloping down to the east as they overlay 2 feet
or more of constructional debris.

When the east half of 228 was first excavated, three superb pine
beams were still in place, the east-west partition built up to and
around them. Two of the three were paired close beside the northsouth
quartering wall, while the third lay next to the plastered east
side. With no visible indication of decay, the three show advantageously
in Pepper's excellent but unpublished prints, Numbers 249251,
but subsequently the second-story floor was demolished, the
paired beams were sawed off and the third, pulled out. Samples we
took from remaining portions of the pair, each 11½ inches in diameter,
gave a tree-ring date of 1073 + for that on the east (JPB, No. 56),
but its companion (JPB No. 57) was too complacent to read. Empty
beam holes suggest that the west half of the 228 ceiling was similarly

In the floor beneath the pair and close against the south end of
the room, two empty postholes lined with slab fragments on edge
mark the positions of former posts 8 and 9 inches in diameter and
Pepper's unpublished negative 249 shows a comparable post in situ
under the south end of the east beam. Thus the anticipated, or
proven, weight of the upper living rooms—portions of third-story
walls are still present—was too great for three, or possibly six, northsouth
11-inch beams.

Two magnificent dwellings were here sacrificed to architectural
requirements in the redesigning of Kiva C. Portions of the north
end in both rooms and the wall between were torn out to make way
for the bulging convexity of the reconstructed kiva. Then the northwest
quarter of 228 and the adjoining quarter of 229 were filled with
debris of demolition to provide a base at the second-story floor level
for the stonework, 6 feet wide and about half as thick, enclosing the
new ventilator shaft.

Reconstruction is also evident in the second-story rooms. The
north wall of 228B replaces the original and overhangs by 16 inches
its counterpart, also a substitution, at the north end of 228A. Although
patchwork is to be seen here and there, plaster on the original
fourth-type masonry and former doorways indicates that both
228B and 229B continued in use with little or no inconvenience
caused by the jutting ventilator stonework. There were the diagonal
door connecting Rooms 228B and 173B (pl. 15, left); the much
altered east-wall T-shaped doorway figured and partially described


Page 167
by Pepper (1920, fig. 89, p. 258); another T-shaped door, now
sealed by large blocks of friable sandstone, formerly breached the
rebuilt north wall and provided access to Room 234B. Also, there
was still another T-shaped doorway through the rebuilt north wall
of 229B, or the outline of such a doorway, for its jambs were not
preserved on the opposite side, in 231B, when Kiva C was elevated
to its present position.

Construction and reconstruction of Kiva C not only forced the
abandonment of Rooms 228 and 229 but also compelled the abandonment
or alteration of several other dwellings hereabout as witness
Rooms 231 and 234, two of those razed to allow for the original
Kiva C. In representing some of these structures as built of fourthtype
masonry and others of third-type, I again illustrate the inconsistency
of my sequential classification. When Late Bonitian architects
razed one structure to provide for another, the characteristics
of the razed walls often were unconsciously introduced into the new
stonework. Although the masonry of Kiva C is predominantly of
laminate sandstone, dressed blocks of friable sandstone are conspicuous
in its south and east arcs. So, too, with Rooms 228 and 229.
Their walls are of fourth-type masonry, much of it banded, but
their quartering partitions are predominantly of friable sandstone
salvaged from razed second-type buildings.

The former T-shaped door between Rooms 228B and 227B is
more or less duplicated in the first story. Both had been reduced
piecemeal to a doorway of standard size and then completely closed.
My own notes, from 228A, are not entirely in accord with those
Ruppert reported from the opposite side and it is obvious that he,
too, was uncertain as to the order in which the several reductions
had been made. As he described it from 227A, this great doorway
had a 7-pole lintel at a height of 7 feet 8 inches. The broad upper
part, 28½ inches above the floor and 7 inches from the southwest
corner of the room, measured 45 inches wide by 51½ inches high; the
lower part, 23 inches wide, had jambs extending below floor level.

Apparently this hugh T-shaped doorway was reduced in two separate
stages: (1) to an opening 26 inches wide by 3 feet high, its sill at
a height of 42½ inches, and then (2) was further reduced to a width
of 15 inches when secondary jambs were introduced to support a doorslab
placed when from 228A. Sometime in this reduction process a
blocking stone 9 inches wide by 2 inches thick was left protruding
5 inches to provide a step 14½ inches above the floor. Finally, the
15-inch-wide opening with its secondary jambs was permanently


Page 168
sealed. From 228A, where the upper part is 5½ inches from the
corner, successive alterations had obscured the original outline and
obliterated the lower, narrower portion.

Another former T-shaped door, also sealed, is to be seen in the
wall separating ground-floor Rooms 226 and 227-I. Viewed from 226
the upper part is 3 feet 9 inches square and 18 inches from the northwest
corner; the lower part is 23 inches wide by 34 inches high with
jambs continuing to the foundation 12 inches below floor level (pl. 16,
right). The lintel consists of five pine poles averaging 4 inches
in diameter; five upright poles are included in the upper blocking.
These dimensions are preserved on the opposite side, in
227-I, but here the stonework filling the upper portion was recessed
16 inches to provide a full-width shelf 35 inches above the floor and
one of the blocking stones in the lower part was left protruding to
serve as a 12-inch-high step.

The floor area of Room 226 is nearly three times larger than that
of 227-I. Besides their common T-shaped door, each room had two
doorways of ordinary size and these also had been blocked. Following
abandonment, each room had collected 4 or 5 inches of blown sand
and thereafter had been utilized briefly as a neighorhood dump. Conspicuous
among the discards in Room 226 were 13 cedarbark rolls
tightly wrapped with yucca cord and lying side by side as though, together,
they might have formed a hatchway cover. Among occupational
debris in 227-I were squash seeds and pinyon nuts, an Old
Bonitian tabular metate, both early and late potsherds, and six deer
skulls. Blocked doors in its east, south, and west walls had left
Room 227-I completely isolated from its neighbors.

Although smaller than those in third-type dwellings, the six
T-shaped doors in this latest section of Pueblo Bonito were all oversized
except that in the third-story wall between Rooms 174C and
175C, of which only the north jamb now remains. Maximum width
and height for the six are 3 feet 10 inches and 6 feet 8. Two
are in ground-floor rooms, three in second-story rooms, and one in
the third-story. Two open north and south; four, east and west.
All except the third-story example are known to have been reduced
piecemeal and finally closed altogether. It is to be noted, also, that
these six are all inside; none opened to the exterior. Whatever the
function they were designed to serve, that function had been met;
thereafter each doorway was gradually reduced in size and ultimately

The quartering partitions in Rooms 228A and 229A were introduced

No Page Number

Plate 46

Upper: Beneath the southwest wall of Room 261 (upper left) and an abutting unit of the
Northeast Complex, a foundation offset marks floor level of Rooms 265 and 267.


Lower: A unit of the Northeast Foundation Complex (under gloves) abuts the southwest side
of Room 186 at floor level.

(Photographs by Neil M. Judd, 1927.)

No Page Number

Plate 47

Upper: A partially razed wall of dressed sandstone blocks, chinked with potsherds, marked the
southwest corner of Hillside Ruin.


Lower: Five rectangular fireplaces fronted the broken walls of Hillside Ruin.

(Photographs by O. C. Havens, 1925.)

No Page Number

Plate 48

Left: A lone
foundation, 500 feet
long, borders the
Northeast Foundation
Complex on
the south.

(Photograph by
Neil M. Judd,


Right: At Station
1, Northeast
Complex, 22 inches
of excellent fourthtype
masonry survives
upon a 4½foot

(Photograph by
O. C. Havens,

No Page Number

Plate 49

Upper: Pueblo Bonito as reconstructed by W. H. Jackson, 1877. Hillside Ruin lies at the base of
the cliff, right center. From the U.S. Geological Survey, 1878.


Lower: Paired foundations abut fourth-type masonry at Station 4, Northeast Complex, and curve
thence south and west. (Photograph by Neil M. Judd, 1926.)

No Page Number

Plate 50

Left: The abandoned
exterior of the second
Late Bonitian
addition was revealed
by pre-1887
treasure hunters.


Right: An extended
ventilator at
end of the second
unexcavated room
east of 297 with its
overlying repository.

(Photographs by
Neil M. Judd,

No Page Number

Plate 51

Upper: Ventilators in the second and third (left) unnumbered rooms east of 297 were extended
through the abutting fourth-type stonework to the exterior.


Lower: In their final addition the Late Bonitians provided a long repository above each
ventilator as it reached to the exterior from the outer row of third-type rooms.

(Photographs by O. C. Havens, 1923.)

No Page Number

Plate 52

Left: Without
binding stonework,
the Late Bonitians'
final addition to
Pueblo Bonito had
settled away from
the 3rd-type exterior
of Room 295.


Right: At the
northwest angle of
Room 261 a beam
end flush with the
older west-wall
masonry marks
ceiling level of
Room 267.

(Photographs by
Neil M. Judd,

No Page Number

Plate 53.—Late Bonitian architects inserted tie-poles at intervals to bond their fourth-type veneering (left) to the older

(Photograph by Charles Martin, 1920.)


Page 169
after doors to the rooms adjoining on the south, 171 and 172,
had been tightly closed with masonry. These two outside, groundfloor
rooms are among those in which, for the Hyde Expedition, "nothing
of special interest was developed" (Pepper, 1920, p. 339). The few
we examined had already been excavated to or below floor level. No
external wall now stands ceiling high, but we noted one ventilator in
the middle south side of 159-160 and assume that the rooms on
either side, during occupancy, were provided with one or two like

Although such data as we recorded relative to these front rooms
are briefed in Appendix B, it seems desirable to focus attention
upon certain architectural features in passing. Room 170, for example,
with east and west doors fitted for outward-sloping slabs,
has a north-end platform at second-story level reached by recessed
steps 28 inches wide. There is no trace of a screening front to this
platform but a former door, now blocked, once opened through its
north wall at a height of 18 inches and ancient repairs are evident
in the northeast corner.

In the west wall of this room another former door, 2 feet wide
by 40 inches high with lintels at platform level, once opened into
Room 268. About a foot below this door and abutting the platform,
as seen in Pepper's unpublished negative 646, is the uppermost of
two masonry steps. Apparently embedded in this step-block and
extending southward close against the west wall a few inches above
the floor were 2 or 3 pine logs forming a bench-like fixture, a feature
no longer present.

Room 268, its floor 4 feet above that of Room 169 adjoining, is
another one-time dwelling evidencing alteration. Its east and south
walls are of banded fourth-type masonry while the others consist
largely of dressed blocks of friable sandstone salvaged from some
second-type building. The north side abuts from both directions a
plastered Late Bonitian wall that had been razed upon construction
of Kiva H but in such manner as to leave its south end protruding
19 inches into Room 268. In the face of this rebuilt and replastered
wall-end a small oval niche appears 2½ feet above the floor.

A second section of the same partially razed wall stands as an
isolated column 2½ feet from the protruding portion. I resisted the
temptation for subfloor exploration but in a vertical, west-wall channel
4 inches wide and 7 inches deep we recovered the remains of a
hewn timber, reduced to a length of 5 feet 2 inches (JPB, No. 27),
that gave Dr. Douglass a tree-ring date of A.D. 1080 (Smiley, 1951).


Page 170

Between 170 and 153 are a number of rooms each of which was
repeatedly and individually patched or otherwise altered. Each had
been excavated to below its floor level and all data are lacking.
From what remains of the stonework I believe this whole sequence
was originally built of fourth-type masonry and then repeatedly
repaired with materials salvaged from razed second- or third-type
dwellings. The much-altered north walls of Rooms 160, 168, and 169,
with their blocked doorways pointing right and left, up and down,
include every variety of Late Bonitian stonework and leaves one with
the impression they are architectural compromises that preceded or
followed construction of Kivas 161 and 162.

At least seven former doorways are outlined in the north wall of
Room 169, and each was changed at least once by introduction of new
jambs, sill, or lintel poles and each eventually was sealed and
plastered over. Most puzzling of these seven, if not the most altered,
is that in the northwest corner (pl. 55, upper). As I interpret this
complexity, the fourth-type masonry of the west wall provided one
jamb while its opposite, 30 inches distant, was a mongrel over 4 feet
high and slightly concave. Both jambs had been plastered but, despite
successive changes, the doorway retained a northwestwardly trend.
In 1925 the National Park Service made extensive repairs in Room
169 hoping thus to preserve the unique character of its much-altered
north wall.

At floor level in Room 159-160, represented on Hyde's map with
a diagonal partition, Pepper photographed a longitudinal layer of
trim pine poles, 3-4 inches in diameter, no longer present. His
illustration (Pepper, ibid., fig. 144, p. 336) shows at least two
blocked north doors and, low down, what could be the lintel of a
third; also, a high east door to Room 168, with secondary jambs
sloping eastward. The pole layer sags in the middle, rising to the
four walls. Although the ends look to be square-cut I detect from
the illustration no evidence of pole seatings unless it be at sill
level of the east door, a height of approximately 3 feet, to judge
from the length of the shovel handle.

Sagging of these floor poles suggests either an open space below
or settling due to proximity of the old east-west watercourse. The
latter seems the more reasonable explanation but the possibility of
deep-lying structures may not be wholly disregarded. There is the
lintel-like piece low in the north wall of 159-160 and, near the
northwest corner of Room 168, a former narrow passageway 6½ feet
high with four descending lintels, three of which are supported by


Page 171
hewn pine planks, and an adobe sill 2½ feet below approximate floor
level (pl. 55, lower). This former passageway had been sealed from
the outside, presumably when Kiva 161 was rebuilt, so we may
suppose those four descending lintels covered a stairway leading down
to an older structure under 161. A comparable flight of intermural
steps connected Kiva D with Room 241B.

Midway in the north wall of Room 168 is a second tall, muchaltered
door with five masonry steps leading upward to the Kiva 161
roof level. I judge its original dimensions to have approximated 40
inches in width by 7 feet 7 inches high, but sill and jambs had
been changed repeatedly and the opening finally reduced to one of
T-shape, its sill at a height of 34 inches. We undertook to repair this
reduced passageway, replacing its lintel poles and several courses of
stonework above and carefully retaining the five masonry steps, the
uppermost riser being 6 feet 3 inches from the inside north wall
of the room.

Between Rooms 159-160 and 153 are half a dozen small rooms I
have represented (fig. 6) as of fourth-type masonry despite abundant
evidence of reconstruction with building stones salvaged from older
structures. Room 153 abuts the third-type Kiva B enclosure from
the east and Room 142 abuts that same enclosure from the south.
As I studied the previously exposed and broken masonry hereabout
it seemed to me that every wall had been patched, and rebuilt, and
patched again.

Adjoining 153 on the east is Room 154, with its neatly blocked
south door; then 155, with blocked doors in both north and south
walls—the only groundfloor rooms in this late fourth-type addition,
so far as I know, with former doors to the outside. The previously
opened south door of Room 155 and the disintegrated wall opposite
invited placement of our dump-car track for excavation of the East
Court and its surroundings (pl. 5, upper).

Despite previous partial excavation, plaster still adhered to the
four walls of 153 and the last coat apparently had been whitened.
Earlier floors or work surfaces were noted at depths of 15 and 25
inches and a test pit to clean clay, 9½ feet below the earliest of these
two, revealed mixed occupational and constructional debris throughout.
From this mixture and within the limits of our test we recovered
786 potsherds, all of types peculiar to the Old Bonitians.
Obviously Room 153 had been built upon Old Bonitian trash, either
the upcanyon slope of the pile buried under the West Court or upon


Page 172
rubbish carried out and discarded at the edge of the 10-foot-deep
floodwater channel that formerly passed Room 153.

The south walls of Rooms 153 and 154 stand upon a 17-inch-high
foundation and outside, approximately at floor level, is a thin silt
layer apparently deposited since that foundation was built. Twentythree
inches lower another, more obvious silt surface extends south
a few feet and then dips sharply away from the ruin. At a distance
of 15 feet and a depth of 6, that second surface is overlain by mixed
village waste, including fragments of Old Bonitian pottery, all sloping
southward and into, presumably, the one-time floodwater channel.

Room 153 abuts the east side of the stonework enclosing thirdtype
Kiva B and Room 142 abuts its southeast corner. The east wall
of 142, which is 23 inches thick and rises from a flagstone pavement
about 3 feet below floor level, may have been third-type originally but
it had been rebuilt with fourth-type masonry. This latter also appears
to identify a puzzling outside complex of foundation-like stonework
apparently built upon the upper silt layer, that at Room 143
floor level.

On this same layer, 5 feet 5 inches east of Room 142, we uncovered
a masonry-lined repository 14 inches in diameter by 18 inches deep
and once covered by a sandstone tablet with an 8-inch hole in the
middle. The east half of this tablet and a corresponding portion of
the repository had been broken away and were missing. A few feet
beyond we came upon a rectangular pit, depth undetermined, presumably
one of those dug in interest of the Hyde Expeditions (Pepper,
ibid., p. 23).

The 23-inch-thick east wall of Room 142 is square-ended 15 inches
outside the room and there rests upon a large flat sandstone slab
that is supported all around by fourth-type masonry. Although I
have sought to locate this and nearby stonework on our plan of the
pueblo I have no explanation to offer and only limited description.

To the eastward, Rooms 345 and 346, so-called, are remnants of
indiscriminate stonework erected in the lee of fourth-type Rooms
156-158 and the jutting corner of 159. Their associated floors lie
5-8 inches below their north-wall foundations; the partition between,
10 inches thick and foundationless, may have been raised as a buttress
since it follows the outward slant of the Room 157 south wall.

Despite the fact I have represented the westward extension of
this latest addition as ending with Rooms 142 and 153 (fig. 6),
evidence of repair and reconstruction is to be seen all about, both
east and west. It is all Late Bonitian in point of time and again


Page 173
emphasizes the fact that when Late Bonitian architects razed one
wall to erect another, the character of the earlier was reflected in
the later through use of salvaged materials. Only increasing reliance
upon laminate sandstone marks the sequential advance of Late
Bonitian stonework.

There is reason to believe that Rooms 142 and 153 were first
constructed in what I have called third-type masonry and were later
rebuilt in fourth-type. We know this to have been the case in Rooms
140 and 141 and those to the north, surrounding Kivas A and B.
Taken together, the masonry of this central group most nearly meets
the standards I originally set up for my third-type classification as
indicated in figure 5 but a strong flavor of later handiwork prevails
throughout. Furthermore, fragments of Mesa Verde, or a protoMesa
Verde, pottery were recovered under the floor of Kiva A
and Mesa Verde pottery was a late importation at Pueblo Bonito.

So, too, with the whole east side of the West Court. Originally
built of third-type masonry, as may be seen in Room 140 where the
old southeast corner survives (pl. 33, right), this wall was subsequently
replaced with one of fourth-type stonework. When we
began West Court clearing operations in 1924 and found this late,
one-story wall toppled forward we restored it with its own fallen
materials (pl. 36, upper). Therefore the Late Bonitians are themselves
partially responsible if our restoration looks to be fourth-type
while inner walls remain of the earlier variety.

Beginning with Room 34 and extending north to Kiva 16 and
thence westward to enclose Rooms 28B, 55, and 57, the refacing job
was so complete I have had no hesitancy in representing all of it as
among the final undertakings of Late Bonitian architects (fig. 6). On
the basis of Pepper's figure 28 (1920, p. 77) I have classified the
interior of Kiva 16 as third-type although its encompassing walls are
clearly later. The west side of the Kiva 16 square, the front wall of
Rooms 28B, 55, and 57, and the enclosing walls of Kiva Z, include
some of the best fourth-type masonry in the ruin—sandstone blocks
so closely seated it is not always possible to press a knife blade

Rooms 28B, 55, and 57 are fourth-type replacements for burnt-out
second-type rooms that the Late Bonitians had erected upon and
against first-type Old Bonitian dwellings. The three lie at the secondstory
level, above Rooms 28 and 28a, and are therefore improperly
represented on our groundfloor plan (fig. 6; see, also, Judd, 1954,
pp. 23-28). But they cannot be omitted. Their continuing south


Page 174
wall is slightly concave and rests directly upon the first-type stonework
of 28 and 28a, originally one.

Rooms 55 and 57 were built upon pine beams inserted at ceiling
level above the west half of 28 and the wall that separates them
was further supported by a built-in, 9-inch timber (pl. 80, right).
This latter (JPB No. 49) gave a tree-ring date of A.D. 1083, 12
years later than a beam-end (JPB 48) from the north wall of Room
57 but, nevertheless, suggesting the approximate period during which
these two fourth-type Late Bonitian rooms replaced one of secondtype

Former south doors, later blocked and plastered over, had provided
access to Rooms 57 and 28B from the terrace outside (pl. 73, left).
Those to 28B, two in number, both T-shaped, and one replacing
the other, are described by Pepper (ibid., pp. 127, 199) as connecting
with Room 40. I suspect an erroneous observation here for, as
explained elsewhere (Judd, 1954, p. 27), Room 40 is nonexistent,
and its "bin" is the entryway to a flight of stone steps leading down
to Room 28 and thence to 51a.

A test pit in the northeast corner of this terrace revealed: (1) The
nonbanded fourth-type exterior of 28B abutting the banded west
side of the Kiva 16 enclosure; (2) the latter's so-called "bench,"
12 inches high on a foundation of comparable height, abutting both
the fourth-type exterior of 28B and the first-type exterior of 28a
and (3) the 2-foot-high foundation of Room 28a standing, at depth of
10½ feet, upon the adobe floor of a quadrangular structure whose
above-bench wall, razed at 7 inches, was merely mud-plastered earth.

A second test pit beneath the blocked Room 57 door revealed a
5-inch-wide offset marking Room 28 ceiling height, 4 empty beam
holes 10 inches lower and, approximately at Room 28 floor level, a
slab-lined fireplace 23 inches in diameter by 8 inches deep. Overlying
this latter, between Kiva R and the post-and-mud exterior of Rooms
3a and 28, was an accumulation of village rubbish that included
demolition waste, kitchen sweepings, and numerous potsherds both
Old Bonitian and Late Bonitian.

Farther along the terrace, in the angle formed by the enclosing
walls of Kivas Y and Z and perhaps contemporary with them, is a
masonry-lined pit averaging 3 by 5 feet, inside, and 49 inches deep
(pl. 18, left). Its interior was reddened by fire; its fill, sand and
sandstone spalls with bits of charcoal in the upper half.

Like Rooms 28B, 55, and 57, Kivas Y and Z are Late Bonitian
substitutions for earlier structures. In contrast, the single row


Page 175
extending south from Kiva 16, Rooms 17-35a, represent Late
Bonitian reconstruction rather than replacement. Room 17, which
we had numbered and examined before Pepper's field notes were
published, is identified by its store of oversized metates with our
Room 211. Its subfloor paired foundations are among those we had
traced northward from room to room without finding any clue as to
their intended purpose.

South of Room 211 are two unnumbered compartments whose
west walls had been built upon timbers crossing the east arc of thirdtype
Kiva Q. When those timbers eventually rotted and collapsed
they let fall into the ceremonial chamber below a number of deeply
worn or outworn metates, both Old Bonitian and Late Bonitian,
obviously intended, as were those in 211, for pulverizing white sandstone
for wall decoration. We found a quantity of that sandstone
in Room 212 and there was more in 27, adjoining. This entire row,
as I judge from its masonry, was originally built by the Late
Bonitians with third-type stonework but was subsequently repaired
with banded fourth-type masonry.

Separating Rooms 34 and 35a is a narrow passage connecting the
East and West Courts. Beneath its east end, while tracing the
exterior of Kiva 2-B, we came upon a small subterranean cubbyhole,
of crude construction but plastered, that may be the feature designated
as Room 147 on Hyde's groundplan (in Pepper, 1920, fig. 155).
All the finished stonework hereabout appears to have been third-type
originally and subsequently much patched and sometimes replaced
with banded fourth-type. Such repairs as we undertook in this area,
and elsewhere, sought to duplicate masonry then standing. Late
Bonitian stonework is so outstanding one is inclined to discount its
age and origin. As my Zuñi companions remarked in 1920 upon the
occasion of their first tour of Pueblo Bonito, "White men built those
walls; Indians could not."

Shrines. The Hyde Expedition's Room 190 as illustrated by
Pepper (ibid., fig. 146) was a flag-floored, sub-surface cylinder of
sandstone masonry that looks to be almost but not quite my fourthtype.
It was a pit-shrine, a communal anchor so to speak, that bound
the Late Bonitians to this particular place of residence. Masonry and
location identify it as peculiarly Late Bonitian but its counterpart
may be seen today, however inconspicuously, in every Pueblo village
where the old religious practices are still respected, from the Hopi
mesas on the west to the Rio Grande.

We have no recorded description of Room 190, but Pepper's excellent


Page 176
illustration indicates a depth of 2 to 2½ feet, a diameter of
6 or 7. Large slabs floored the chamber and the middle one, more or
less discoidal, was much lighter in color than the others. Unpublished
Hyde prints 279, 407, and 543 show this discoidal piece to have been
about 4 inches thick and, when first uncovered, it was ringed about
with slab fragments on edge. Later the pavement was stripped away,
the wall masonry crumbled and nothing now remains but a ragged
hole in the ground near a remnant of the former cross-court wall
(pl. 5, upper). Room 190 was indubitably a shrine, but I am less
confident of those next to be considered.

Built upon several feet of sand (fig. 13) wind-piled against the
plastered outside east and south walls of Room 176, at the southeast
corner of the pueblo, is a cluster of six small masonry compartments
that seem absolutely purposeless except as shrines. Apparently added
one at a time, their floor levels vary and their stonework differs. As
we found them they were without lateral openings or evidence of
roofing; each was filled with clean wind-borne sand.

Northernmost of the six measures, inside, 4 feet 2 inches in length
by 24 inches at the south end and 27 inches at the north. Its end
walls abut the plastered exterior of Room 176. The north end,
without foundation and externally of good second-type masonry
(pl. 81, upper), was built upon 5 inches of blown sand 33 inches
above the 176 foundation. Its inside south and west sides were
plastered and painted, white above a dull red band.

Clearly this supposed shrine group is late, later than Room 176.
Excepting the second-type facing noted above, all stonework is of
third-type or banded fourth. Abutting the extreme southeast corner
of the group is the west end, here 12 inches high by 24 inches wide,
of the long, foundationlike wall that extends east 509 feet and
overlies several units of our Northeast Foundation Complex. Room
176 and its contemporaries are later than the complex; our cluster of
so-called shrines is later than 176 and the long, lone foundationlike
wall, is later still. Whether shrines or not, these six small compartments
outside Room 176 were among the final efforts of Late
Bonitian masons.