University of Virginia Library


Page 78


Old Bonito had been inhabited a long, long while and its household
rubbish had piled up 8 feet deep before a second people arrived to take
up joint residence. This second people, whom I have called "The
Late Bonitians" for want of a better name, proceeded immediately to
usurp leadership of the community and shape it to their own desires.

Nowhere is this leadership more apparent than in architecture.
Late Bonitian methods of house construction differed from Old
Bonitian methods. Whereas the Old Bonitians adhered firmly to
their traditional Pueblo II type of stonework—wall-wide slabs of
spalled sandstone and adobe mortar (pl. 10, 1)—the Late Bonitians
preferred walls composed of hand-dressed or selected blocks of sandstone
veneering both sides of a rubblework core. This "doublecourse"
masonry, as it has been called, was more stable than Old
Bonitian stonework; with a setback at ceiling level, it invited superimposed

When the Late Bonitians came to dwell at Pueblo Bonito their
first conspicuous undertaking was to surround the crescent-shaped
old village with a single, close-fitting row of 2-story houses. The
masonry they employed for this undertaking is what I have termed
"second type" thus to distinguish it from that of the first settlers, the
Old Bonitians. Second-type masonry consists of friable sandstone
blocks, hammer-pecked or hand-abraded on the face only and chinked
with quarter-inch tablets of laminate sandstone (pl. 10, 2).

Recording his observations in Room 1, Pepper (1920, p. 29)
expressed the thought that the adjacent outer walls, which are of
second-type construction, must "represent the latest additions to
the no doubt constantly changing pueblo." Later, and in lighter
mood, he described (ibid., p. 332) this variety of local stonework
as "the sandwich form"—large pieces with thin pieces between—
which is just as good a name as any.

Why the Late Bonitians should have felt it necessary to envelop
the old town with walls of their own is not now apparent; possibly
it was to give expression to their sense of orderliness, for they
found Old Bonito a crescentic assemblage of large and small rooms
with others added haphazardly from time to time. Its convex outside
wall, thickly coated with mud and slanted inward at the top, was solid
and impenetrable. It had no door. It was its own defense.


Page 79

If the Late Bonitians sought initially to eliminate the irregularities
of that outside wall they succeeded admirably. They built Rooms 100
and 101 just to fill an external angle between 104 and the unnumbered
room next on the east. They built Room 7 to fill a similar angle
outside Rooms 1 and 8; and 300 to occupy a jog where Room 298
abutted 13. The inner wall of their encompassing row of 2-story
houses all the way from Room 320 around to 298 has no visible
purpose but to compensate for the inward slant of the older stonework.

From Room 320 to 102 that inner wall stood so close to the blank
exterior of the old settlement that there was no space between for
more than a wedge-shaped fill of constructional debris, but beyond 102
the external irregularity of the older building and its roofward slope
invited a succession of 12 improvised storerooms. The abutting new
masonry in each case conformed to the unevennesses of the older; in
each case room depth, front to back, was only half that at ceiling
level, or less. In at least one instance, Room 305, storage capacity
was so limited its builders did not trouble to provide the customary
doorway. Nevertheless, each of these intervening spaces, whether
useful or not, was roofed ceiling-wise with selected pine poles,
willows or split cedar, cedarbark, and mud.

The Late Bonitians were indefatigable builders. They built not only
an enveloping row of 2-story houses against the door-less rear
of Old Bonito but also a series of second-story rooms on its concave
front, or at least part of it. Thereafter they razed and replaced with
their own an unknown number of dwellings and storerooms in the
eastern wing of Old Bonito. They propped the Braced-up Cliff with
pine posts and built a broad terrace below (Judd, 1959b); they built
retaining walls about the village dump just to confine its bulk.

The 2-story houses the Late Bonitians initially built on the convex
north and west sides of Old Bonito apparently were closed and
abandoned almost immediately. Each room, first and second stories,
with the sole exception of 100, was provided with an external door,
but these doors had been sealed with masonry so skillfully matching
that on either side as to suggest little if any delay between room
completion and door blocking. Each room was connected endwise with
that adjoining, the connecting door invariably 2-3 inches wider at
the sill than at the lintel. To judge from those we cleared, none
of these Late Bonitian 2-story houses had been lived in. None had
a fireplace. Their walls, plastered outside but not inside, had been
constructed upon 3-5 feet of sand wind-piled against the slanting
exterior of Old Bonito.


Page 80

Room 100, a narrow Late Bonitian structure of second-type
masonry, was built in an angle at the north end of an Old Bonitian
3-room sequence, 3b, 3c, and 104 that figuratively divides the old
village into an east wing and a west (fig. 3). Room 104 originally was
part of 107 the wall separating them having been erected in line with,
if not actually continuing, that forming the west side of Room 100.

Adjoining 100 on the east is the Hyde Expedition's "old dark
room," unnumbered but repeatedly cited in Pepper's published field
notes. To the west and curving southward are Late Bonitian Rooms
93-96 and 114-116; east of "the old dark room" an even dozen contemporaneous
but unexcavated dwellings remained in 1921 as sole
survivors of that row of houses Late Bonitian architects initially
raised to screen the old pueblo.

The National Geographic Society began its explorations in the
first of these previously unexcavated dwellings, 200, a 6-by-10-foot
room of unplastered second-type masonry, with a ceiling height of
9 feet 10 inches and a door in each wall. The north door, originally
sealed, had been forced from the outside by some grasping individual
and the near pair of its eight lintel poles severed by a steel ax (pl. 26,
upper). Masonry fallen from upper stories, with a scattering of
cedarbark and dressed willows, filled the groundfloor room.

Room 202, adjoining, was the counterpart of 200. Its four walls
were unplastered; there was a door in each, and that to the outside
had once been sealed. Dressed willows and cedarbark lay among fallen
building stones. The south wall foundation, 20 inches high, had
been erected upon stratified sand of undetermined depth but containing
occasional spalls, potsherds, and bits of charcoal.

Rooms 201, 203, and 205 are Late Bonitian storerooms entered,
respectively, from 200, 202, and 204. Like these latter, they are
of second-type masonry and had been built against the first-type
stonework of Old Bonito, conforming to all its irregularities. The
south side of 203, for example, is the exterior of Rooms 4 and 5, a
2-story wall whose unplastered lower 3 feet slopes outward about
23° while that above is plastered and has a less pronounced inward
slope (fig. 10). Thus the old wall is vertically convex. At its east end
Room 203 is 22 inches wide at floor level and 33 inches at the top;
its west-end measurements are 20 and 25 inches, respectively. The
east half of the north wall having toppled outward along with its
continuation eastward, we made no observation between Rooms 202
and 209.

Rainwater draining into 209 from the east and south had left 18


Page 81
inches of stratified sand across its east end. The ceiling had collapsed
upon this sand and had burned there before the upper walls gave
way and fell. In front of the east door a scrap of sawed board bearing
knife cuts and nail holes marked a 19th century attempt at holding
back sand and rubble in preparation for use of Room 14b.

Room 14b is undoubtedly the most publicized room in all of
Pueblo Bonito. It was entered August 28, 1849, by Lt. J. H.
Simpson, R. H. Kern, and "one or two others" whose names and the
date, scratched into the soft mud plaster on the south wall, were still
there 28 years later "as plainly as if done but a few days previously"
(Jackson, 1878, p. 442). Victor Mindeleff or members of his party
slept in 14b for a night or two during the winter of 1887-88 (pl. 19,
right), and the Hyde Expedition used it for a storeroom and kitchen
(Pepper, 1920, p. 70) until Richard Wetherill completed his adjoining
trading post in the fall of 1897. It was during this period, perhaps,
that fresh mud was smeared over the four walls, concealing the
record of those who had been there before.

The ceiling of Room 14b is a model of second-type Late Bonitian
industry, perseverance, and esthetic appreciation. Pepper (ibid.,
pp. 79-80) describes its composition as pine and spruce logs, 4-6
inches in diameter laid transversely and spaced 2-3 inches apart.
These were covered at right angles by a layer of 163 close-lying
willow sprouts, 3-4 feet long by ⅜ inch in diameter, peeled, handsmoothed
and square-ended, and bound to the logs at 6-inch intervals
with overlaying split willows and yucca thongs. Upon the willows was
a blanket of cedarbark and, upon that, the mud floor of the room
above. A southeast corner hatchway gave access to the second-story

Rainwater pouring through the south door of 14b and muddying
their kitchen floor prompted members of the Hyde Expedition to
block the opening with hasty stonework; later, to clear the room from
which the water flowed (Pepper, ibid., p. 70). That room was a Late
Bonitian storeroom, 303, built of second-type masonry against the
first-type exterior of Old Bonitian Room 11. Room 14a lies directly
above 14b and, although much of its second-story masonry had previously
fallen, the third- and fourth-story northeast corner still stood
there at the time of the Society's investigations (pl. 80, left). Present
also, surprisingly, was a spot of wall plaster Mindeleff had photographed
in 1888, at the end of a third-story 4-pole storage shelf
(pl. 19, left). For convenience in hanging blankets and lesser possessions,
single poles had crossed each end of Rooms 200, 203, 204,


Page 82
209, and perhaps others among this second-type Late Bonitian addition
to the pueblo.

Surgeon J. F. Hammond's description of a Pueblo Bonito room not
examined by Simpson (in Simpson, 1850, pp. 144-145) clearly combines
his recollections of Room 14b with those of 303, as seen through
the half-filled south door of 14b. Since all he observed through that
opening had been removed prior to 1920 a winnowing of his description
augments that of Pepper and provides understanding of a second
variety of Late Bonitian ceiling—one no longer evident anywhere
about the pueblo.

Hammond's "8 cylindrical beams about 7 inches in diameter" were
in Room 14b; his "6 cylindrical beams . . . less than 2 feet apart"
were in 303. Resting upon these six and at right angles to their length
"were poles . . . about 2 inches in diameter . . . in contact with each
other . . . bound together . . . by slips apparently of palm-leaf or
marquez. . . . Above and resting upon the poles, closing all above,
passing transversely of the room, were planks about 7 inches wide and
¾ of an inch in thickness. They were in contact, or nearly so . . . all
their surfaces were . . . as smooth as if planed. . . . Beyond the
plank[s] nothing was distinguishable from within. The room was
redolent with the perfume of cedar."

Dr. Hammond did not enter Room 303; he merely stood in 14b and
peered through its half-filled south door. The "planks" he saw were
fitted so closely their overlying pad of cedarbark was not visible.
But the six transverse beams were there and the 2-inch longitudinal
poles. This whole assemblage, which appears so clearly in Pepper's
informative figures 23 and 24, had slumped down together and had
come to rest upon the south edge of the second-story floor whence they
leaned, slantwise, to an open north door. That second-story door has
since gone but the masonry on either side is readily identified. The
planks and their blanket of cedarbark therefore represent not the
floor of 14a, as the legends would have us believe, but that of thirdstory
303C, settled down upon the floor of the second-story room,
303B, which is at ceiling level of Old Bonitian Room 11B (pl. 27,

Hand-smoothed "planks" were a Late Bonitian specialty. So, too,
the peeled and abraded willows in the ceiling of Room 14b. Pepper
(ibid., p. 318) said such willows were found "in all the rooms of this
outer series" and my more limited observations partially confirm his.
We saw none in rooms other than those of second-type construction,
but not all such rooms were ceiled with dressed willows. Strips of red


Page 83
cedar were substituted in some of them. Hand-smoothed planks may
have appeared as floor boards more frequently than we know, but
they were used also as lintels or sills for Late Bonitian doors, ventilators,
and wall repositories. The Old Bonitians, so far as I may judge,
were not workers in wood and the dressed pine and cedar boards we
observed in their empty dwellings were probably acquired from the
Late Bonitians through trade or otherwise.

Unknown individuals had forced entrance into Rooms 14b, 301, and
299 sometime prior to 1887 and all three had been appropriated for
use by passers-by (pl. 19, right). We did not examine the first story
of 301 but the original blocking of its north door had been replaced
by rough stonework within a frame of 4-inch pine logs and sawed
planking which we did not disturb. Our observations in the upper
stories, 301 B-D, are recorded in Appendixes A and B.

In Room 299 the expert craftsmanship of 14b is repeated. Its
ceiling consists of 23 transverse pine beams, 3 to 5 inches in diameter;
above them and lying lengthwise of the room, we counted 134 peeled
and abraded willows bound to the beams by split willow stalks (unbarked,
flat side down) and yucca thongs. A layer of shredded cedar
bark covered the willows. The four walls are of unplastered secondtype
masonry and there is a door in each. Seatings for a single crosspole
remain at each end of the room, 5 feet 2 inches above its floor,
but that at the west end had supported three lesser poles, ends
embedded in the masonry, to form a narrow midway shelf. Nails in
ceiling beams and pendent baling wire identify 299 as a recently
occupied storage place. Its formerly blocked north door is the easternmost
of those to be seen in the existing outside north wall of Pueblo
Bonito. Late Bonitian architects erected their double row of secondtype
rooms to encircle Old Bonito and twice thereafter changed the
external contour of their addition and added another story.

Room 299 had its contemporary storeroom, 300, built to take
advantage of an external angle where Old Bonitian Room 298 abuts
Room 13. Like 303, Room 300 is of second-type masonry, but, unlike
303, its ceiling includes a layer of split cedar rather than dressed
willows. The second of its 17 selected pine beams had been removed
to provide for a southeast corner hatchway but this opening eventually
had been closed by a purposely shaped sandstone slab. A more interesting
fact, however, is that the ceiling beams of Late Bonitian Room
300 lie just above, if not upon, ceiling beams protruding through the
south wall from second-story Old Bonitian Room 13B.

Jack Martin, a former Hyde Expedition freighter, identified


Page 84
Room 300 as Richard Wetherill's one-time smokehouse, and this
seems confirmed by heavily smoked walls and ceiling, an improvised
east-end stone bench 20 inches high, pendent wires, and nails in beams
and both north-door jambs.

Unlike those in second-type ground-floor houses, including storerooms,
the walls of 300B were plastered. A tabular metate embedded
face up in the floor was too near the north and east sides for use as
a mill. A south door, 10 inches above floor level, had a hewn plank
incorporated in its sill and secondary jambs slanted to retain a doorslab
placed from the third story of Old Bonitian Room 13. That
these two were connected, one a second-story Late Bonitian room of
second-type masonry and the other a third-story Old Bonitian dwelling
of first-type stonework, is a fact of more than passing interest in
this study of local architecture. The north door of Room 300B,
opening into 299B, is thoroughly typical except for its secondary
jambs which slope outward and thus suggest that Room 299B, like
300B, was used for storage by occupants of Old Bonitian Room 13C
(pl. 21, lower).

Here, as on the west side, Late Bonitian houses were built upon
several feet of sand settled against the Old Bonitian dwellings. And
the resulting difference in floor level prompted Late Bonitian architects
to raise the ceiling level of their Room 297B about 2½ feet above
that of 299B in order to equal roof level of third-story Old Bonitian
Room 298C (pls. 28; 26, lower).

Room 304, which adjoins 303, is another Late Bonitian storeroom
built to occupy an irregularity in the outside wall of Old Bonito.
Of its ceiling, only three transverse poles remain, all at the broad east
end, and these, as in Room 300, were overlain by split red cedar rather
than the dressed willows supposedly peculiar to rooms of second-type
construction. There was no south door in Room 304 but one opposite
gave access to and from Room 209. Although a storage place
primarily, the skeleton of a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaëtos) and the
breast bones of three macaws were found upon the floor of Room

The fact that ceiling timbers from Old Bonitian Room 10 protruded
through its north wall to rest upon the floor of 304 urged us to
another comparison of adjoining Old Bonitian and Late Bonitian
dwellings. First of all, the north-wall foundation of 304 is 2 feet
7 inches high with a 7-inch-wide offset 10 inches below floor level. In
contrast, the base of the first-type south wall lies 6 feet 3 inches below
that same floor level, a figure that compares favorably with the


Page 85
reported Room 10 ceiling height, 7 feet. Constructional debris—
sandstone fragments and chunks of dried adobe mud—crowded the
40-inch space between that old south wall and the 31-inch-high northwall

The formerly blocked outside door of Room 299 is the easternmost
of its kind now evident. Presumably there had been another in the
room next on the east, 297, but if so its outline was destroyed by
some pre-1887 wielder of pick and crowbar (Mindeleff, Neg. 3209).
Beginning with Room 297 the external second-type masonry of the
Late Bonitians had been stripped away and replaced first with thirdtype
stonework (fig. 5), then with fourth-type (fig. 6).

Much has been written herein of this outer north wall, Room 14b
east to 297 and beyond, but its fascinating history merits further
reference. It is all Late Bonitian handiwork. The Late Bonitian
architects presumably began construction of their initial addition
around at the southwest corner of Old Bonito whence a row of
2-story second-type houses is still to be seen extending from Room 25
to 100 (fig. 4). From 100 eastward, however, that outer row stepped
up to three stories and all external openings—doors and ventilators—
irrespective of the story in which they occurred, were carefully sealed
with matching stonework. Room 14b and those on either side are
among these 3-story, second-type-masonry houses although topped by
part of a fourth story built at a later date (pl. 19, right).

That fourth-story remnant was standing there in 1877, and Jackson
(1878, p. 441) remarked upon it. It was a remnant of the Late
Bonitians' final building project. Previously they had raised a row
of second-type houses outside the southward sloping exterior of Old
Bonito and, presumably to adjust them to the height of Rooms 296
and 298, had raised the floor level of Room 297C about 2 feet higher
than that of 299C (pl. 28). Thereafter a second addition and a third
had been spliced into that same outside wall. The fourth-story
remnant above 14b is part of that third addition.

Outside Room 297, however, the third room east of 14b, a complete
change in masonry unexpectedly occurs—a change that has prompted
speculation ever since Jackson's time. Here, starting at ground level
and slanting upward and to the east, fourth-type masonry abruptly
replaces the original second-type (pl. 53). But our data indicate
this fourth-type replacement was preceded, and from approximately
the same point of beginning, by a third-type substitution for the
second-type masonry of the original exterior. No trace of that thirdtype
substitute is externally visible today although remnants survive,


Page 86
buried, within the pueblo. Externally one may still see where the
original second-type wall was abutted by foundations prepared for
an extensive fourth-type addition and where the present fourth-type
replacement was introduced after plans for that addition had been
abandoned (pls. 43, upper; 44, right).

Although the original second-type masonry outside Room 297B
and its next-door neighbor was replaced by the present fourth-type
veneer, their inside stonework remained second-type at its very best
(pl. 29, left). However, in the unnumbered and unexcavated room
next beyond, immediately north of Room 86, third-type masonry replaced
the original second-type, in the second story if not in the first
(pl. 22, upper). That third-type replacement was part of an extensive
Late Bonitian reconstructional program that began in Rooms 86, 78,
and 71 and, spreading east, eliminated perhaps 20 2-story houses of
second-type masonry which, previously, had displaced an estimated
30 Old Bonitian dwellings and storerooms.

In his description of Room 86, Pepper (1920, p. 289) makes it
clear this Old Bonitian dwelling had been appropriated by the Late
Bonitians and remodeled to their own liking. The east end, as seen
in his figure 123, consists of dressed blocks of sandstone with secondtype
chinking and the adjoining south side likewise was "new." Stonework
at the west end was composed of large flat stones, typically Old
Bonitian, and remains so today (pl. 22, upper).

Room 78 likewise was altered at the pleasure of Late Bonitian
architects. The Old Bonitians had planned and built a crescent-shaped
pueblo and the north and south sides of Rooms 71 and 78 curved
south in continuation of their plan (fig. 3). Pepper's figure 108
shows a second-type east end in Room 78, as in 86, and the adjoining
half of its south wall was obviously built in merely to straighten the
convexity of the Old Bonitian original. Late Bonitian architects
sought both to widen the Old Bonitian crescent and to surround it.
Hence their alteration of first-type stonework in Rooms 86, 78, and
71 and the presence of second-type masonry on abandoned foundations
subfloor in nearby houses.

In the unnumbered room north of 86, third-type masonry has
replaced the original, of second-type. As I read the record, that
second-type original was part of a Late Bonitian replacement program
that continued from Room 297 southeast to Rooms 62 and 70
and adjacent structures, and thence across the pueblo to the remains
of second-type masonry buildings beneath the floors of Rooms 25,
106, and 336 (fig. 4). That all this was subsequently supplanted by


Page 87
a second and more deliberate Late Bonitian program is only part of
the story of architecture at Pueblo Bonito.

As previously stated, Room 100 occupies a peripheral angle of
Old Bonito. It is the only room in the enveloping Late Bonitian
2-story row that lacks an external door. Its west wall, despite largerthan-normal
component parts, is of second-type masonry and a contemporary
both of that in Room 104, adjoining, and of the northeast
wall in Room 92 (pl. 21, upper). Longitudinal ceiling poles in Room
100 were covered with split cedar and cedarbark in addition to the
willows of the text. "Individual willow strips . . . were used in all
the rooms of this outer series" (Pepper, 1920, p. 318).

These three materials—peeled willows, split cedar, and cedarbark—
are seen again in Pepper's figure 137, which illustrates not the ceiling
in Room 112 as reported but that of the Hyde Expedition's "old dark
room," unnumbered but next east of Room 100. The transverse pole
seen in the foreground of figure 137 was a Late Bonitian stringer
built into the wall between the "dark room" and that adjoining, a
storeroom. Both were roofed by the same lot of ceiling poles, but
these were covered in the dark room by layered willows; in the storeroom,
by cedar splints and cedarbark. Mindeleff's 1887 photograph
(pl. 26, upper) shows those ceiling poles extended through the north
wall and about 2 feet of outside masonry above them but all had been
stripped away prior to the Society's reconnaissance of 1920 (pl. 3).

Together with 101, Room 100 filled the broad external angle
formed by Old Bonitian Room 107 as it abutted an unnumbered
room next on the east (fig. 4). When they built 100, 101, and the
partition at the east end of 107, the Late Bonitian architects undertook
a little necessary repair work in addition. The floor of 107B,
perhaps disrupted by the intruding partition, is described by Pepper
(ibid., p. 326) as comprising about twice the usual number of alternating
layers of cedarbark and adobe above the original cottonwood
beams "of various sizes, shapes, and conditions."

Since brush of some sort, almost standard in Old Bonitian ceilings,
is not mentioned in the description, I assume it had been replaced
with the layer of split cedar seen in unpublished Hyde negative
No. 371. That same negative also shows, under the cedar splints,
a series of small ceiling poles overlying four straight-grained pine
logs that alternate with trios of pine poles. Straight-grained pine
timbers, peeled willows or split cedar, and cedarbark were favored
by Late Bonitian architects and the floor of Old Bonitian 107B was
clearly a Late Bonitian repair job.


Page 88

Room 107 was abutted by Late Bonitian storeroom 101 and the
latter was connected with its contemporary, 93, by an open door and
at least one ventilator. Southward from 93 the remaining houses in
the encompassing Late Bonitian row had largely succumbed to the
elements prior to 1877 (Jackson, 1878, p. 441). The outside wall of
each room was 2 or 3 inches thicker than its opposite and these inner
walls were built as close as possible to the sloping exterior of the
older building leaving a V-shaped space to be filled with sand and
constructional waste. Protected by such waste, the exterior of Old
Bonitian Room 102 retained a superb example of the studwork, or
"mosaic," that I believe once covered the outside of Old Bonito, or
most of it (pl. 11, right).

The Hyde Expedition concluded its examination of this Late
Bonitian west-side row of 2-story houses with excavation of Rooms
114, 115, and 116. Like those previously cleared, these three were
built of relatively large friable sandstone blocks, rubbed smooth
and chinked between with laminate chips—the very acme of secondtype
masonry (pl. 10, 2). This use of thin laminate sandstone as a
chinking medium, so different from the mosaic-work of the Old
Bonitians, really introduced tabular sandstone as a local building
material. Thereafter, as the Late Bonitians pursued their successive
expansion plans they utilized increasingly thicker blocks of the laminate
variety and came ultimately to use it altogether.

Each room in the outer 2-story row was provided with 3 doors,
each wider at the sill and each with 7-9 clean, pine lintel poles that
might extend several feet beyond the jambs, perhaps to the side
walls. In each instance the outside door was closed with masonry
matching that of the wall itself; in each instance second-story doors
occupied the same relative position as those of the first story. Apparently,
there was no ground-floor fireplace in any of these 2-story
houses; no interior plaster; no smoke-blackened walls; no evidence
of occupancy. Together they formed a single row hiding the convex
exterior of crescentic Old Bonito.

Late Bonitian Room 114 had a ceiling height of 10 feet 4 inches;
at ceiling level its east wall stood 16 inches from the outside of Old
Bonitian Room 317, next on the east. This old exterior, thickly plastered,
doorless, and slanted inward like others of its kind, rose from
a 17-inch-high foundation based on clean sand 5 feet 10 inches below
floor level in Room 114. Thus the Late Bonitians began their enveloping
row of 2-story houses almost at first-story ceiling level of
the old village. If my calculations are correct, the floor of Old
Bonitian Room 317 is about 4½ feet lower than that of Room 114.

No Page Number

Fig.5 -Ground plan showing extent of the second Late Bonitian
additon with subfloor walls and foundations for third-type

No Page Number

No Page Number

fig. 6-Ground plan showing final additions to Pueblo Bonito and
known subfloor foundations for fourth-type masony

No Page Number

No Page Number

Third-type replacement of first-type masonry, north wall of Room 86B. Second-type
interior, room north of 296B, at upper left.

(Photograph by Neil M. Judd, 1926.)


Plate 22

Old Bonitian Room 83, foreground, with third-type masonry above. Open door,
upper left, is in north wall, room east of 297B.

(Photograph by O. C. Havens, 1921.)

No Page Number

Plate 23

Left: Portion of
partly razed Old
Bonitian kiva underlying


Right: North
arc of Old Bonitian
kiva; enclosing
wall of Kiva
2-C at left.

(Photographs by
Neil M. Judd,

No Page Number

Plate 24

Left: North arc
of Kiva R with
fourth-type masonry
of Room 57,
at upper left, abutting
outer southeast
corner of secondstory
Room 92.


Right: North
bench niche and
subfloor repository,
Kiva R, with
original first-type
bench (under
gloves) and three
successive benches.

(Photographs by
Neil M. Judd,

No Page Number

Plate 25

Left: Northeast
corner of Room 328
with part of postand-mud
east wall,
sub-floor ventilator
duct, and wattled
screen (lower

(Photograph by
O. C. Havens,


Right: Willows
bound horizontally
to upright posts
and coated with
mud partitioned
Room 256.

(Photograph by
Neil M. Judd,


Page 89

The sealed door in the west wall of Room 115 invited close examination.
Its north jamb, 3 feet high, was intact and so was half
the original second-type blocking but the remainder had been removed
and replaced above sill level with third-type masonry. Ten feet south
of the surviving jamb this substituted stonework overhung the original
by 5 inches (pl. 37, upper). Wind-blown sand had piled up
against the outside wall until the blocked door was half covered but,
18 inches below sill level, we came upon a trampled silt surface and,
27 inches lower, the west-wall foundation, 29 inches high. That
foundation was built upon blown sand of unknown depth but containing
occasional bits of charcoal and early-type potsherds.

South of Room 115 are 116 and then three unnumbered rooms
that preserve the convex outer curve and the original second-type
masonry of the Late Bonitians' 2-story additions. We know these
three only from the outside but assume they have practically the
same floor level, wall height, and door arrangement as Rooms 114,
115, and others of their kind. In the first two, blocked west doors
have lintels 21 inches above the floor of third-type Room 117 (pl. 37,
lower). If we assume that those doors are 3 feet high, as was that in
Room 115, and that each is 34 inches above its respective floor, the
average measured sill height in Rooms 200 and 202, then floor level
in those two unexcavated second-type Late Bonitian rooms is 3 feet
10 inches below that in third-type Room 117 and, based on our comparative
data between 114 and 317, approximately 4½ feet above floor
level in Old Bonitian Room 320.

The narrow space between the southernmost of these three unexcavated
Late Bonitian rooms and the exterior of Room 320 had been
filled with waste and roofed over at time of construction. We noted
remains of the one-time ceiling in the southwest ventilator of 320B—
pine poles recently severed by a cross-cut saw and strips of split cedar
above the poles. Presumably all comparable space between the older
and later masonry northward to Room 101 was similarly roofed by
the Late Bonitians.

Together, these five second-type rooms, 115, 116, and the unnumbered
three, embody architectural data to which I shall return in the
next chapter, but it may be recorded here that, although the west
wing of Old Bonito ended with Rooms 320 and 326, the row
of 2-story houses outside the old buildings continued at least two
units beyond before all were razed and replaced during the Late
Bonitian's second and greater expansion program—the program that
began at the blocked west door of Room 115.


Page 90

We found remains of those continuing second-type units underneath
the floors of Rooms 25, 106, and 336. Pepper (1920, pp. 98111)
describes 25 as an "open room" containing a vast assortment of
discarded materials and separates it into an "upper, or new part"
and a "lower" part. Therein lies our principal interest in Room 25
for the "new part" features third-type masonry and thus identifies
it with the Late Bonitians' second reconstruction program while the
"lower" part is what remains of a room demolished in the path of that

The north wall of Room 25 and the lower half of its east side have
survived from the original second-type room and have been incorporated
in its third-type replacement. The south and west sides of
the earlier structure, however, were largely razed and "new" walls
were erected above their remains although not along the same lines.
This misalinement accounts for the fact that the south end of the
rebuilt room, 14 feet 4 inches wide, is twice that of the north end.

Subfloor in the northwest corner of this rebuilt room the partially
razed west side of the earlier is crossed by the "new" west wall. The
upper 3 feet of that older, second-type masonry had been replaced
with foundationlike stonework to serve as support for the thirdtype
wall above while the lower 2 feet remains typical of its period
and is identical with that in the empty second-type rooms north to
116 and beyond. It was this surviving portion of the older structure,
5 feet 3 inches deep, filled with debris of demolition and floored over,
that became the "lower" part of Pepper's description.

Following excavation, Room 25 was repaired and reroofed by
Richard Wetherill for his own purposes. An east door was blocked;
that on the west side was enlarged and barricaded; a hole broken
through the north wall into the V-shaped space outside Room 320
(unpublished Hyde prints 305 and 440) was also closed, and five
select pine ceiling poles were among those comprising the new roof.
In 1959 Room 25 was utilized for storage by local Park Service personnel
and, for reasons unknown to the present writer, was referred
to as "the Judd room."

The two unpublished Hyde prints cited above also show an outward
flare at the base of the north wall as though the Late Bonitian
builders of Room 25 had closely followed the external slope of Old
Bonitian 320. In his description of 25 Pepper (ibid., p. 98) directed
attention to a sandstone disk embedded in the second-story north
masonry. Another such disk occurs low in the south wall of 106
(ibid., p. 325) and yet another appears in the north side of Room 303.


Page 91
Mindeleff in 1887 photographed a fourth example outside and just
above lintel level of the formerly blocked north door to Room 200
(pl. 26, upper). Thus three of the four embedded sandstone disks
of record occur in second-type Late Bonitian masonry. We did not
dislodge one.

Room 106, correctly described by Pepper (ibid., p. 324) but interchanged
with Room 23 on Hyde's ground plan (ibid., fig. 155),
adjoins Room 25 on the south and the partly razed second-type wall
noted subfloor in the northwest corner of the latter continues diagonally
across Room 106 and on approximately the same level, here
at a depth of 5 feet 8 inches. Other partially razed second-type
masonry was disclosed by our trenches beneath the floors of Room 336
and Kiva U and it is reasonable to suppose that still other comparable
remains lie deeply buried in areas we did not explore.

Room 336 was built of superior third-type masonry and shortly
after completion a 1-inch layer of shale was spread upon the floor
to underlie an intermural kiva, 11 feet 8 inches in diameter (pl. 74,
lower). Subsequently that kiva was reduced to its lowermost two
courses, but at time of construction it crossed a contemporary northend
wall of unknown purpose, and this latter, in turn, crossed an
earlier second-type wall paralleling that diagonally subfloor in Room
106. At depth of 4 feet 7 inches the floor associated with this Room
336 subfloor wall is a foot higher than its counterpart in 106, but
the masonry itself continues another foot and a half, to 6 feet. Both
walls, the subfloor second-type and the north-end third-type, had
been cut through upon construction of the under-floor ventilator duct
connected with the short-lived kiva built within the walls and upon
the original floor of Room 336.

Although I did not pursue the subject to a positive conclusion, I
believe the partially razed second-type walls subfloor in Rooms 106
and 336 were in some way connected with the lower part of the one
that separates Kivas U and W. Originally several feet higher, this
latter wall still stood 16½ feet at the time of our investigation. Its
lower 13 feet was a mixed masonry but predominantly of friable
sandstone dressed and chinked after the manner of our second type
while the remainder was typically third-type. With no identifiable
foundation, the wall was based on an apparent work surface 6 feet
2 inches below floor level in nearby Kiva W and 9 feet 5 inches below
that in Kiva U.

I may be quite wrong in assuming a relationship between the
lower part of this wall and those subfloor in Rooms 106 and 336,


Page 92
but in either case its construction followed demolition of a secondtype
kiva whose floor lies 8 feet 11 inches below that of third-type
Kiva U. To judge from the arc we exposed, the wall of this earlier
chamber, 21 inches thick, was razed 4 or 5 feet above its encircling
bench. This latter, likewise partially razed, had been 30 inches high
but my notes do not record its width. We guessed floor diameter at
about 23 feet.

Thus the initial building activities of the Late Bonitians included
not only Rooms 115, 116, and those adjoining on the south but also
the original of Room 25 and north therefrom. Room 25 appears to
have been the approximate turning point beyond which Late Bonitian
architects did not venture in their first constructional program.
The partially razed second-type kiva 9 feet under Kiva U was part
of that initial program and salvable materials from it and from the
under-floor walls in Rooms 25, 106, and 336 might account for the
mixed masonry of the wall separating Kivas U and W.

Because the lower 9 feet 2 inches of that wall was not plastered
externally it could, conceivably, have been built to conceal the partially
razed remains of the older, underlying kiva, but its plastered
upper half, above the 9-foot-2-inch level, seemingly was intended to
screen two or more second-story rooms. In the portion we examined,
two former doors, both subsequently blocked, appear 16 inches above
the line of plastering or 10½ feet above the basal work surface.

The first of these two doors, 24 inches wide by 46 inches high, had
been carefully sealed and thereafter was abutted by the front wall of
Room 336 when this latter and those next on the south formed the
west boundary of the Court. The second-story rooms once entered
through those doors had in their turn been demolished to provide
space for Kiva U, 13 feet 10 inches in diameter, but the wall itself
was left standing.

There is much hereabout not clarified by our researches. Good
second-type masonry underlies the east side of Rooms 331 and 332,
abutting the thickly plastered, chip-studded exterior of Old Bonitian
Room 330, but cramped quarters discouraged deep digging. The wall
separating these two small rooms was a partition only, built upon
their floors, but that at the west, part of the Kiva U enclosure, retains
a strong flavor of early Late Bonitian architecture. If not part
of the original building program, these several walls were erected
with stones salvaged from razed second-type rooms. A blocked and
plastered door, 22 inches wide, at the south side of Room 332 and
5 feet above its floor does not, in my opinion, represent a second story


Page 93
chamber but rather extension of the wall between Kivas U and W,
with blocked doors at the second story level.

Our exploratory trenches in the West Court, while less convincing
than I could wish, nevertheless disclosed remnants of cross-court
building operations that, together with less dubious remnants under
the East Court, indicate that Late Bonitian architects were, from the
time they assumed control at Pueblo Bonito, intent upon joining its
two extremes into a compact whole. This idea, which apparently
never occurred to the builders of Old Bonito, was notably intensified
during the Late Bonitians' second and greater expansion program
(fig. 5).

When the Late Bonitians came to dwell at Pueblo Bonito their
first major activity was a 2-part building program: a single
row of 2-story houses raised against the blank exterior of Old
Bonito and a series built upon a row of ground floor rooms lining
its concave front. Both parts of that initial undertaking are still
obvious today. Typical Old Bonitian stonework survives in Room
330B but north of it only 1-story buildings remain, mostly with
second-type, Late Bonitian structures above.

Second-type Late Bonitian masonry is present for all to see in
Rooms 328B, 327B, and 324, and, as previously explained, walls of
the first two are supported by a cruder but contemporary variation
built in to strengthen the Old Bonitian ground-floor stonework. The
north and east sides of Room 324 are of third-type masonry at the
second-story level, and followed demolition of a second-type kiva
that partially underlies fourth-type Kiva Z. If this seems complicated
let me add that during trenching operations outside the southeast
corner of the Kiva Z enclosure, we came upon the arc of a firsttype
or Old Bonitian kiva that had been partially razed to make way
for one of Late Bonitian second-type masonry and this latter, in due
course, had been supplanted by third-type Kiva 67. Here, almost
within arm's reach, was displayed the entire range of Pueblo Bonito
stonework, first to last.

Room 324, a third type-masonry dwelling at the second-story level,
was equipped with a masonry-lined fireplace boasting two sandstone
firedogs. A half dozen stone implements and two shattered Corrugated-coil
pots lay upon the floor. That floor was 10 feet above floor
level in Old Bonitian Room 325, adjoining on the west, and 3½ feet
above that in Kiva Z.

Earlier floors were noted in Room 324 at depths of 7 inches and
42 inches. On the latest of these two a 7-inch-wide foundation of


Page 94
unknown purpose crossed the room midway, from north to south.
The earlier floor, that at depth of 42 inches, lay within the partially
razed walls of a second-type kiva. The south side of the room, including
stone apparently salvaged from that razed kiva, had been
built upon a log whose west end was embedded in the first-type external
stonework of Old Bonitian Room 325 and whose middle portion
rested directly upon the second-type masonry of the under-floor

In our 4-foot-wide test pit, the floor of that earlier kiva lay 10 feet
4 inches below the uppermost in Room 324. Our pit revealed the
usual kiva bench, 18 inches wide by 23 inches high, repeatedly plastered
and as often smoke stained but neither pilaster nor south recess.
The fact that only one coat of slightly sooted plaster appeared above
bench level suggests that this razed second-type kiva was either short
lived or that its upper walls were shielded by a wainscoting of upright
sticks and grass.

The second-type kiva under Room 324 is only one of several contemporary
structures erected in or on Old Bonitian court-side rooms
before all were razed in advance of the third- and fourth-type walls
now standing. Room 28, for example, was an Old Bonitian ground
floor dwelling 40 feet long before Late Bonitian architects straightened
its concave north side with a veneer of second-type masonry
(Pepper, ibid., fig. 144) and continued it at least to the second story
ceiling level.

Part of that north-side veneer remains today between Room 28B
and Room 52, the second story of 32. Except for a second-type
partition built on a first-story beam, Room 28B was destroyed by
fire (Judd, 1954, p. 24) and replaced with the fourth-type masonry
that now encloses Rooms 55, 57 and 28B. A bit of contemporary
patchwork is still to be seen at the north end of 55 where a ceiling
timber was inserted into the Old Bonitian stonework (pl. 80, right).

Adjoining Room 28 on the west is ground floor Room 3a (or 97)
with Room 92 as its second story and next beyond are Rooms 3 and
91, the latter above the former. As explained in Chapter II, the original
northeast and southeast walls of Room 3a were of old-fashioned
post-and-mud construction refaced with an inferior variety of secondtype
masonry. That at the northeast was the better of the two,
and its continuation upward into Room 92 was better still.

Here, in second-story 92, Late Bonitian reconstruction is more in
evidence. Veneering on the northeast side was 26 inches thick and,
including the stonework of Old Bonitian Room 3d which it abutted,


Page 95
made a total wall thickness of nearly 3½ feet (Pepper, ibid., p. 299).
The southwest wall, a foot thick, was supported by an 8-inch straightgrained
pine beam seen at upper right in Pepper's figure 127 (p. 307).
Unpublished Hyde print 304 shows that supported wall to be of excellent
second-type masonry and the equal of that adjoining on the
southeast (pl. 24, left).

The floor of Room 91, next door to 92, rested upon four beams
averaging a foot in diameter, and these were crossed at right angles
by poles 2-4 inches thick (Pepper, ibid., p. 40). There were no comparable
beams under the floor of Room 92 but rather a dozen or
more transverse poles some of which appear in Pepper's figures 127
and 128 (ibid., pp. 307-8).

It is not improbable that ground-floor Rooms 3 and 3a (or 97)
were originally one and that this was divided sometime after Late
Bonitian architects built Rooms 91 and 92 at the second-story level.
The straight-grained 8-inch pine beam on top of the dividing partition
was part of that reconstruction; transverse poles extended from it
across 3a to an "old" 6-inch beam half concealed at ceiling level
in the Late Bonitian veneering of the northeast wall. Thus, although
I detect no trace of it in Pepper's illustrations, the layer of closelying
northwest-southeast ceiling poles in unpublished Hyde print
304, with its covering of cedarbark and adobe and a mud-rimmed
fireplace in the middle, necessarily overlay the transverse poles of
figures 127 and 128. Clearly the Late Bonitians were rather prodigal
in their use of straight-grained ceiling poles!

As to the time of these Late Bonitian alterations we have only
the six ceiling-pole dates, A.D. 1036-1092, collected by Dr. Deric
O'Bryan from Room 97 (or 3a), "upstairs" and "downstairs" (personal
communication; Gila Pueblo Nos. 2297-9, 2303-5). National
Geographic Society specimens 47 and 48 from Late Bonitian Rooms
55 and 57, just around the corner, bear cutting dates of 1071 and
1083. So the quantities of bean bushes, beans, and corn found on the
floor of Room 92 (Pepper, ibid., p. 298) could have been harvested
either by the Late Bonitian builders of that room or by the Old
Bonitian occupants of 3 and 3a.

Pepper identifies Room 3 as a "square kiva," whereas the slabsided
fireplace, the draft deflector, and the 12-inch-square "entrance
to a passageway" that prompted the identification actually occur in
the room above, 91. Outside, while clearing the terrace above Kiva R,
we observed no evidence either of the reported ventilator intake or
of the four 12-inch beams "protruding fully 8 feet."


Page 96

Three of the Room 91 walls were of second-type Late Bonitian
masonry, plastered and provided with doors. An oversized "niche"
through the southwest side apparently extended to intramural Kiva Y,
suggesting this latter was of contemporary or later construction.
Like 92, Room 91 was equipped with a southeast corner hatchway
connecting with the room below.

Rooms 91 and 92 were among those second-story rooms built by
the Late Bonitians upon Old Bonitian ground floor structures lining
the West Court from 328 or 329 to 28B and beyond. Portions of
their characteristic second-type masonry survive at the north side of
Room 28B (pl. 30, lower) and it is possible more of the same sort
is preserved among the wreckage of nearby rooms, including 48-50.

Pepper (ibid., p. 207) describes Rooms 48, 49, and 50 as "a
rather peculiar series." As I interpret the description, ground floor
Room 48 was of Old Bonitian stonework; upper 48 and 50 were
separated by a wall built upon a large beam at ceiling level of the
lower room; Room 49, "long and narrow," was the open space above
the 2-foot-thick masonry built in at the north to support that large
beam. Lower 48, therefore, was merely another Old Bonitian ground
floor room that Late Bonitian architects modified in their early program
of constructing dwellings at the second-story level.

A few doors east of 48-50 are Rooms 308 and 309, second-type
Late Bonitian structures built in front of Old Bonitian Rooms 306,
307, and 307-I. Room 308 does not differ greatly from an ordinary
dwelling but 309 is unique. There is nothing else like it in Pueblo
Bonito. Both rooms are marked by low ceilings; as last occupied
there was no means of direct communication between the two.

In Room 308 four 8-inch pine beams seated in the first-type
north wall at a height of 4 feet 3 inches project southward an average
of 7 feet 2 inches. Their size and square-cut ends identify them
with the Late Bonitians, but all four were obviously salvaged elsewhere,
since they are too short for room width here and one is visibly
impressed by oversized cross timbers (pl. 31, lower). Two of the 4,
paired, rest upon upon a masonry pillar that stands on the latest
floor and half conceals a previously blocked east door. The other two
beams were supported by individual posts and the space between them
and the south wall was bridged by 3-inch ceiling poles.

Of four doors, one in each wall, only that leading into Room 19
remained open at the time of our observations. Old Bonitian repairs,
including use of small chips pressed into the mud plaster, are evident
about the blocked east door. An earlier floor at depth of 7 inches

No Page Number

Fig.7-Profile of trench through West Refuse Mound and West
Court to Great Kiva Q.

No Page Number


Page 97
contained a southeast corner hearth, 18 inches deep, unlined and
unrimmed. On this same earlier floor, with no indication of intentional
burial, we found the skeleton of a thick-billed parrot (Rhynchopsitta
), imported from near the Arizona-Mexico
border. While imprisoned, its sternum had become deformed by improper
food or lack of sunlight, or both.

The 7-inch fill between floors contained a number of Corrugatedcoil
potsherds and fragments of bowls ornamented with designs in
Chaco hachure—evidence these well-known Pueblo III types of
domestic earthenware were present during or before construction
of Room 308. Wall masonry continues an average of 6 inches below
the earlier floor and we did not dig deeper.

Room 309 was certainly never designed for secular use. A plastered
masonry block partially screens its northwest corner and the
other three are occupied by quarter-circle enclosures whose floor
areas vary from 6 inches above that of the room (NE) to 29 inches
below (SW) and here an earlier floor lies 9 inches deeper (fig. 12).
A bench of second-type masonry 9 inches wide by 7 inches high
extends lengthwise of the east wall with a much plastered "shelf" or
"seat" at its south end and, fronting this latter, an enclosure 9 inches
deep but rimmed on the concave side by a 7-inch-wide offset 5 inches
high (pl. 31, upper).

Opposite, in the northeast corner, a convex wall curves out and
meets two plastered masonry buttresses, one against the north wall
and one upon the east bench, thus enclosing an area frequently repaved
and once ceiled by thin pine boards when the enclosed space
was 33 inches deeper. Adjoining this area on the south and against
the plastered face of the bench at its original height (38″) was a
masonry-lined feature, 29 inches deep, I inexplicably recorded as a
"bin." Its purpose is unknown.

Close in the southwest corner of 309 is another quarter-circle
feature also 29 inches deep, masonry-lined and plastered, its south
and west sides continuing to an earlier floor at 38 inches. Midway
of its concave side and 8 inches above its floor is a neat little niche,
plastered but empty. Where the feature's east arm abuts the deeper
south side of the room a floor-level ventilator opens through to
connect with an external shaft built against the plastered exterior.
Within the room, between ventilator and a masonry screen or deflector,
the floor is 2 inches higher, and here we found the skeletons of an
infant and a macaw (Ara macao). The fact may be purely fortuitous
but three other macaw skeletons and that of an infant were recovered
from shallow pits in Old Bonitian Room 306, north of 308.


Page 98

Beyond the screen is a large conical fireplace, unrimmed, 22 inches
deep but only the upper 10 inches of its masonry plastered. Between
fireplace and screen is a sunken repository, likewise conical, 8 inches
deep and 12 inches in diameter at the top. A second possible repository,
slab-lined, abuts the convex front of the northeast enclosure.

In addition to these several features there is against the middle
south wall of Room 309 a masonry-lined and plastered "vault" 44
inches deep. On its north side, 9 inches below the room floor, is a
4-inch-wide offset and, lengthwise of it, the imprint of a pole 1½ inches
in diameter, an imprint not unlike those sometimes seen at the sides
of kiva vaults. There was no comparable offset, no pole imprint, on
the south side; no suggestion of a covering.

Earlier floors at depths of 19 and 36 inches in the northwest corner,
at 29 and 38 inches in the southwest corner, and plastered
masonry to a depth of 44 inches in the south-side "vault" all suggest
that the second-type walls of Room 309 had stood here a long while
and that the several fixtures described above may not be of equal age.

We encountered on these earlier floors, particularly in the northwest
corner, sections of broken masonry but not enough to justify the
thought that they had duplicated at an earlier period features in the
room as last occupied. Like evidence did not present itself in Room
308 where, by our tests, floor levels are shallower. A former connecting
door, its sill 8 inches below floor in 309, had been sealed before
a masonry pillar was built on the latest 308 floor after which a
second opening was cut through above, presumably to provide access
to 308B.

Room 310, fronting Rooms 308 and 309, has been considered as an
open workspace. Apparently it had been utilized by both Old Bonitian
and Late Bonitian housewives, for we counted eight earlier work
surfaces. The uppermost of these, 3½ feet above the west-wall
foundation, supported masonry enclosing the ventilator shaft from
Room 309, 13 x 20 inches; between it and the northwest corner of the
area, six large recumbent slabs and nine metates, both tabular and Late
Bonitian. One metate was bedded in adobe and rimmed with masonry;
underneath it were two sandstone slabs, one upon the other,
each seated in mud and the lower covering a masonry-lined receptacle
5½ inches square and empty. Three similar repositories, each slabcovered,
were noted on that same surface close against the north
wall and west of the Room 309 ventilator. Between the first of these
four and the corner were two shallow depressions, each containing
a number of shells, beads, and flint chips (U.S.N.M. No. 336028).
"In olden times," said one of our Zuñi workmen, "turquoise and


Page 99
beads were planted under the floor to keep children from falling off

This so-called workspace, 310, extended to the rim of Kiva N, a
6-pilastered chamber of second-type masonry that was apparently
built upon the remains of one or more earlier dwellings which, in
their time, had supplanted the partially razed Old Bonitian kiva
Pepper (ibid., p. 269) found subfloor in Room 83. The north arc
of Kiva N now stands 9 feet 3 inches above its floor, but 4 feet 7
inches below floor level we came upon a large block of native sandstone,
part of the same cliff-fall Pepper reported on the first-type
kiva bench under 83.

Plastered and whitened second-type masonry was disclosed repeatedly
during our testing hereabout, in and under Rooms 311, 312,
and the area numbered 313. What is left of Room 312, with its
slab-lined fireplace and floor repositories, overlooks Kiva N from
the east and likewise appears originally to have been of second-type
masonry. Although third-type stonework is now most in evidence the
upper 11 inches of it at the south end rests upon the partially razed
and rebuilt second-type masonry of 313. Among the miscellany
scattered over the floor of Room 312 were a few bones of Ara macao,
the red, blue, and yellow macaw of tropical America, and several late
Chaco potsherds including fragments of a white cylindrical vase.

That irregular open space numbered 313, south of 312, may conceal
the remains of one or more former dwellings. The latest floorlike
surface we came upon lies 4 feet 2 inches below that of Room 312.
A white-plastered door jamb, the apparent remnant of a west wall,
has been incorporated in the Kiva N ventilator shaft; from this point
the north side, of good second-type masonry, extends 15 feet 10 inches
to a rebuilt corner above Kiva M. Here, among a welter of mixed
masonry, we came upon the remains of a 27-inch shaft whose stonework,
razed 44 inches below floor level, connects at a depth of 7 feet
10 inches with a slab-floored tunnel, 26 inches wide by 25 inches high,
roofed with transverse poles and sandstone slabs, that extends northward
under 312 to an unknown destination.

Although second-type masonry appears predominant among these
partially razed, subfloor walls our plotting of them (fig. 4) does
not seem reasonable. Some obviously preceded construction of
Kiva M; some followed. In a second test pit at the southeast corner
of the area we bared seven distinct and fairly uniform levels
the lowermost, at 7½feet, of compacted sand but containing particles
of charcoal. A third pit, at the west side of the open area, revealed


Page 100
the convex curve of an adobe wall, 34 inches high, razed 2½ feet
below the surface and partially covered by the external stonework
of Kiva N.

Apparently there was more Late Bonitian constructional activity
around the courtward side of Old Bonito than our data disclose.
Some of that activity, as we have seen, included walls of second-type
masonry; some of it resulted in walls built, in part at least, with
stone salvaged from razed second-type structures. Demolition, reconstruction,
and replacement are everywhere evident.

Kiva R, at the north end of the West Court, apparently possessed
some intangible quality that led to repeated revision rather than replacement.
Its location may have been the determining factor. At
any rate Kiva R apparently started as an Old Bonitian creation which
the Late Bonitians adopted and rebuilt, first in second- and later in
third-type masonry. And with each revision the Late Bonitian priesthood
adhered religiously to the outward slope of the original (pl. 69,
lower). In contrast, Kiva N was constructed of second-type masonry
throughout but upon the site of an abandoned and partially razed
Old Bonitian chamber.

Eastward from Kiva N and Room 312 whatever court-side structures
of second-type masonry formerly existed have been replaced
by those of third-type masonry. This is an area of intensive
Late Bonitian constructional activity. Their architects ordered demolition
of at least 15 Old Bonitian 2-story houses to make way for those
of second-type masonry. Our test pits revealed portions of secondtype
kivas beneath third-type kivas L and O (figs. 4; 15), but north
thereof I am less certain. Such foundations as we came upon usually
were so completely stripped of their stonework there was nothing left
by which to identify them. Bare foundations all look alike!

Some of the underfloor masonry in Rooms 88 and 90 is positively
second-type; some of that under Kiva 75 might be or it might be
older, as was previously suggested. Some of the lower walls in muchaltered
Room 64 retain a strong flavor of original second-type construction
and this is also true of the subfloor ventilator ducts and
other fixtures of Old Bonitian Rooms 315 and 316. Not until one
comes to Rooms 62 and 70 and Kiva G may one enter surface structures
in which second-type masonry visibly predominates. And, after
G, there is that conspicuous rectangular block of 14 adjacent rooms
in which Late Bonitian architects exercised the whole gamut of their
distinctive stonework.

Pepper (1920, p. 223) wrote: "Room 62 was very interesting."


Page 101
He might have added those on either side, Room 70 and Kiva G, for
they are equally interesting. Each evidences long occupancy and
extensive alterations. The west end of Room 62 is clearly of our
second-type masonry, as seen in untrimmed Hyde negatives 217 and
221 from which Pepper's figures 99 and 100 were prepared. Built-in
sections at either end of the irregular south side, the convex curve
of Kiva G between, are composites of second-, third-, and fourthtype
Late Bonitian masonry. Overhanging the northwest corner just
above ceiling level (ibid., p. 232; fig. 98) is a northeast-southwest
wall of banded fourth-type stonework, presumably a second-story
continuation of that diagonally through Room 70.

Where a later coat of plaster lines across the west end of Room 62
about 3½ feet above its floor, three north-south logs supported a
storage shelf composed of 2-inch poles with reed mats lashed to them
by strips of wood and yucca cord. About a foot east of this shelf a
rectangular door into Room 70, sill height unknown, had been reduced
to oval form by secondary jambs and lintels.

The west end of 62, of typical second-type masonry but scant
foundation, was built upon compacted sand into which five storage
cists had been dug, their average depth being 3 feet 9 inches. Like
those we discovered under the floor of Room 266, adjoining on the
east (Judd, 1954, p. 48), Pepper's five cists were filled with broken
pottery and sand; in addition, the contents of two were covered by
fragments of large burden baskets, the only baskets of their type reported
from Pueblo Bonito.

Of the sherds visible in Pepper's figure 100 (ibid., p. 227) I
recognize four pitchers of the old globular form, with sloping
shoulders and handles attached below the rim. Visible bowl and
pitcher ornamentation is likewise in the old tradition, which Roberts
and Amsden described as Transitional or Degenerate-transitional
(Judd, 1954, p. 178). This is the pottery of Old Bonito, as made
known by test pits through household sweepings beneath the West
Court. It is reasonable to believe, however, that fragments of Late
Bonitian vessels were also represented in the cist fill, as they were
in Room 266.

In the published description of Room 62 I find no positive evidence
of Old Bonitian occupancy of this immediate area but such
evidence may have been overlooked since there is at least a suggestion
of it in the northwest bench of Kiva G. We are told the north
wall of Room 62 continued 4 feet below its lower floor, the one with
the sherd-filled storage cists, while the south side continued to a depth


Page 102
of over 6 feet. We have no comparative data as to floor levels in 62
and 70 but that in 266, with its underfloor cists, was just 5 feet below
a single southwest door whose sill height in Room 62 is given as 9
inches or, possibly, 21 inches (Pepper, ibid., pp. 233, 236).

Room 266 lies immediately east, or northeast, of 62 and 70; the
wall between, as seen from 266, is of good second-type masonry
and so, too, is the near two-thirds of its northwest side as the latter
continues west to the outside curve of Room 76. The remainder
of that northwest wall is of third-type construction.

From the open north door of Room 62 the evidence of building and
rebuilding in Room 70 seemed particularly puzzling and I am not
sure my interpretation of the published record is entirely accurate.
Apparently guided by depth alone, Pepper believed the lower part,
the "first floor" as he called it (ibid., p. 256), had been built by "the
old people." His "old people," however, elsewhere in his field notes
recognizable as my Old Bonitians, are here readily identified by their
distinctive masonry as early Late Bonitians. As seen in unpublished
Hyde negative 245 (herein, pl. 32, right), the lowest wall in Room 70
is of second-type masonry with a rectangular door in the middle.
Eventually that wall was razed approximately at lintel level and a
new floor laid; a cruder, foundation-like stonework of salvaged rock
was substituted at left and right and plastered as though for occupancy.
A square doorway at new-floor level, its inset jambs unrealistically
slanted outward to support a doorslab placed from within,
connected with Room 99, adjoining.

That floor-level door is our introduction to 99, but, with the
previously unpublished Hyde print of Room 70 in hand, it seems desirable
to note several architectural features that are no longer visible:
(1) a beam hole in the rebuilt west half of the north wall
and lesser timbers protruding from the left evidence a second-story
floor a few inches below the log-supported, third-type northeast
corner wall (which had collapsed prior to 1921); (2) that corner
wall, the unbanded masonry opposite, and the built-in section between,
apparently were all parts of a Late Bonitian room at the second-story
level, one angle of which projected above the northwest corner of
Room 62 (Pepper, ibid., fig. 98); (3) the rectangular doorway in the
partially razed second-type north wall of Room 70 was blocked from
the other side by the abutting southwest wall and foundation of
third-type Room 99. Construction of these latter, therefore, obviously
prompted the successive revisions of Room 70.

Pepper's notes on Room 99 (ibid., pp. 313-316) leave little to be


Page 103
desired. The square door in its southeast wall 3 feet 5 inches above
the floor is the same square door we saw at floor level in the rebuilt
second-type north wall under Room 70B. The latest floor in thirdtype
Room 99, therefore, is at foundation level of its second-type
southeast wall or approximately 3½ feet lower than that in remodeled
Room 70, a relationship that is reversed elsewhere.

The National Geographic Society found Room 99 filled with fallen
masonry and blown sand to sill level of its square southeast doorway,
that is, to a depth of 3½ feet (NGS. Neg. 18668A). We removed
this fill in our search for earlier walls and were rewarded by five
separate underfloor foundations averaging 19 inches wide by 17 inches
high but with no trace of finished masonry upon either. I believe
they were preliminary to construction of third-type Room 99 and have
so represented them on figure 5. Four sides of this room are
of unmistakable third-type masonry but that at the southeast is of
second-type. It was the abutting southwest foundation of Room 99
that blocked the rectangular door in the partially razed second-type
north wall of Room 70.

Room 266, adjoining Rooms 62 and 70, is one of 14 comprising a
rectangular block of east-wing rooms that stands forth conspicuously
on any ground plan of Pueblo Bonito (fig. 2). Like 62 and 70, Room
266 was initially built of early, or second-type, Late Bonitian masonry
but this was subsequently altered with each of several structural
revisions. The west side of the room and the adjoining half of its
north end are second-type but the remainder of the north wall is
third-type and its easternmost 3½ feet is later still. With unbanded
laminate stonework predominant, the east wall may even be fourthtype
while that at the south is a mixture of second-, third-, and fourth.

An earlier Room 266 floor or work surface at a depth of 10-12
inches immediately overlies an unidentifiable foundation averaging 21
inches wide and varying from 30 to 40 inches in height as it extends
lengthwise of the room and passes beyond both north and south ends.
It carries no masonry but may have been laid when the east half of
the north wall was rebuilt (fig. 5).

Dug into compacted sand on either side of this subfloor foundation
were five jar-shaped storage cists. With constricted orifices, they averaged
4½ feet deep by 3½ feet in maximum diameter and were not
plastered. At the bottom of each was a hollow of unknown significance,
oblong to oval in shape and 2½ to 4 inches deep. Three of
the five cists were situated east of the longitudinal subfloor foundation;
two on the west side. Two of the former and one of the latter


Page 104
had actually been dug against the foundation, thus causing one side to
be flattened. The cists, therefore, were later than the foundation
whatever the age of this latter.

Although it carried no identifying stonework, that subfloor foundation
is unquestionably Late Bonitian but it could be either early or late.
My only reason for suggesting an early period is its possible relationship
to those foundations and floor levels underlying the whole 14room
block (figs. 8, 9), which block is basically of second-type construction
with later revisions. The five Room 266 cists followed the
subfloor foundation and they were dug for storage purposes although
only one, No. 4, yielded evidence of foodstuffs. All five, like those
reported by Pepper in Room 62, were filled with blown sand and
broken pottery. From the sherds in Cist No. 1 we restored 22 bowls
of which 20 were less than 6 inches in diameter (Judd, 1954, pl. 56).

These subfloor storage cists were the outstanding feature of Room
266 but the level of their overlying work surface or floor could not, unfortunately,
be accurately correlated with that Pepper reported in
Room 62, adjoining. Sill height of a west door is 4 feet above the
Room 266 floor but we lack a corresponding measurement from the
opposite side. North of this opening the west wall of 266 is noticeably
convex and at a height of 5 feet 8 inches, holds one or more longitudinal
poles positioned, perhaps, coincident with Room 70 alterations.
A south door, opening into Room 264, had a sill height of only 26

The subfloor foundation noted in Room 266 continues under 264
but here a second pavement reduced sill height of the connecting
door to 15 inches and that of a former south door to a mere 3. In
the next two rooms, 262 and 251, deeper digging revealed abandoned
second-type walls and associated floors at much lower levels.
Figures 8, 9 will illustrate our findings more clearly than words and
the depths indicated will explain why our observations were usually
limited to narrow test pits. Lower walls invariably were built of
hand-smoothed friable sandstone and were chinked after the manner
of our second type while upper masonry in most cases was a mixture
of second-type and third.

In Room 262, where east and west foundations lie 6 feet 5 inches
below the latest floor level, we exposed an earlier surface a foot
deeper and on it a wall fragment 20 inches wide by 8 inches high,
plastered on the east side only and painted pink, that continues under
and beyond the north end of the room. On an apparent work surface
at depth of 5 feet 9 inches, occupying the whole south end of 262,

No Page Number

Ceiling poles of the Hyde Expedition's "old dark room" extended through its
north wall: open door of Room 200, at left.


Plate 26

Empty beam holes in Room 299B (right center) are about 2 feet lower than those of
Room 297B, next on the left. At lower right, the broken north door of Room 301.

(Photographs by Victor Mindeleff, 1887. Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.)

No Page Number

Plate 27

Left: Ceiling
level of Room 11B,
under outstretched
hand, lies at floor
level of secondtype
Room 303B.
Above, blocked
door and repaired
walls of Room


Right: Thirdtype
masonry at its
best, north wall of
Late Bonitian
Room 335.

(Photographs by
Neil M. Judd,

No Page Number

Plate 28.—Ceiling beams in Room 297B were seated higher than those in 299B (above blocked door, right margin) to approximate roof level of Old Bonitian
Room 298C. Fourth-type masonry merges with second-type outside 297.

(Photograph by Charles Martin, 1920.)

No Page Number

Plate 29

Left: Secondtype
masonry survives
on the inner
north wall of the
room next east of
297B, its formerly
blocked door
opened since 1900.

(Photograph by
Neil M. Judd,


Right: Exterior
view of door at left,
the fourth-type veneer
merging with
the original secondtype.

(Photograph by
Neil M. Judd,


Page 105

Fig. 8.—North-south profile, Rooms 266-267 through Rooms 245-246, showing earlier floor levels.


Page 106
is a puzzling block of solid stonework faced with a mixture of
second- and third-type masonry the upper 22 inches of which remains
unplastered. In the face of that block, at a height of 3 feet, the
first of two open step-like recesses appears.

A rude foundation at a depth of 5 feet 1 inch abuts the plastered
west side of 262 and extends eastward as though to cross the room. At
2 feet 6 inches above the floor on which that foundation lies, a
now blocked door formerly opened into Room 264 where sill height

emains only 3 inches. The current Room 262 floor lies 5 feet 4 inches
higher, covering all but the lintels of its blocked north door but a
south door, 20 inches above the later floor, gave access to Room 251.

This latter, Room 251, likewise marks a site long occupied; earlier
masonry lies deep beneath its adobe floor. Its visible north end, for
example, built of comparatively large blocks of laminate sandstone
without banding, rests directly upon and overhangs by from 4 to 8
inches its partially razed underfloor counterpart, still 5 feet 11 inches
high. Opposite, at the south side, underfloor masonry stands 6 feet
3 inches and there is an earlier floor 6 inches lower.

All four of these abandoned under-251 walls are of readily
recognized second-type masonry and all remain unplastered. A
former south door, 19 inches above the floor at 6 feet 3 inches and
roughly blocked, had opened into the unexplored area under Rooms


Page 107
248 and 249 but a later one, subsequently sealed from 249, had accompanied
the final revision of 251. In this final remodeling, wall
masonry is a mongrel composed primarily of laminate sandstone but
including many dressed blocks of friable sandstone. As last occupied,
Room 251 connected with 262, adjoining on the north, and with 256
by means of an alleyway, 250. The improvised opening into 250 was
provided with a sturdy pine post at its south jamb and a hewn plank
on top to support six 3-inch lintels (NGS. Neg. 15866A).

And thus it was all down the row, from Room 266 to 246. Each
room had experienced repeated changes; in each, earlier walls and
pavements had been replaced. With a ceiling height of 11 feet
4 inches, Room 246 had earlier floors at depths of 12 and 20 inches,
each covered with debris of reconstruction. The latest of these two
had been spread 7 inches above the sill of a neatly blocked door to
Room 248, but there was no trace of a comparable opening in the
south wall. The lower floor covered a layer of stones and we did not
dig deeper.

Rooms 248 and 249 were not dwellings but the result of a dwelling
divided. Indeed, 248 may have been an intentional sacrifice since the
partition between had been built from the 249 side and the lower 3 feet
of it was only one stone wide, corresponding to the depth of a
deliberate sand fill in 248. Above the 3-foot mark the partition
doubled in thickness and household sweepings overlay the barren

Room 249, the north half of this former residence, had been
separated from 248 and then divided vertically into upper and lower
chambers. The upper, roofed by three east-west pine beams 10 inches
in diameter at the original height of 13 feet, plus the usual ceiling
poles and layered cedar splints, had been crushed down into the lower
chamber by collapse of second-story masonry. This lower chamber,
roofed by four 4-inch east-west logs at a height of 7 feet, the customary
ceiling poles, and a layer of reeds, was designed to house macaws
whose feathers were in endless ceremonial demand.

North and west doors in the lower chamber had been blocked
and plastered to leave foot-deep recesses. A possible hatchway
in the southwest corner was suggested by a hand-hewn board,
5 inches wide and 26 inches long, found on the floor together with
rounded chunks of adobe. Lengthwise of the east wall an adobefloored
shelf about 40 inches wide and supported on four 4-inch logs
set into the north and south masonry 3 feet 8 inches above the floor
provided a shelf for live macaws (Ara macao). We found four


Page 108
articulated skeletons and the skull of a fifth; quantities of droppings
on floor and shelf provide evidence the birds had been long in this
dark, doorless chamber. Pinyon nut shells, squash seeds, and corn
cobs suggest the food offered.


Fig. 10.—Diagrammatic sketch showing relationship of Late Bonitian Rooms
202-203 to Old Bonitian Rooms 4-5.

As in other instances, the wall between 248B and 249B had been
built upon a beam at first story ceiling level; during 1921 repairs
we marked its former position by stones protruding from the side
walls. In both rooms ground floor masonry reflected our secondtype
while that of the upper stories was best described as third type.

The eastern row of our rectangular block parallels the western
row figuratively as well as actually (fig. 8). Each room exhibits


Page 109
one to four earlier floors with accompanying alterations to walls
and ceilings. Each room had its beginning in what was indubitably
second-type masonry despite a high proportion of laminate sandstone;
thereafter, each architectural change witnessed the increasing use
of salvaged building blocks but with decreasing reliance upon those
of friable sandstone. On any ground plan of Pueblo Bonito this
entire 14-room block looks as though it had been planned and built
as a unit and perhaps it was. The entire group may at one time have
formed the eastern boundary of the pueblo since its outer wall was
formerly doorless and since surface features beyond are all later
and at a higher level.

Room 245 lies between 246 and 244 and shows influence from both.
The fourth-type Late Bonitian masonry of Room 244 abuts the
plastered exterior of 245 exactly 5 feet 4 inches above its foundation.
Both inside and out the east wall of 245 reflects the stonework of 244
and thus suggests the time of its last alteration. There are earlier
floors at depths of 4 feet 9 inches, 6 feet 1, and 6 feet 8, each separated
from its predecessor by constructional debris in which we noted bits
of cedarbark, twigs and potsherds.

The south wall foundation of Room 245 at a depth of 7½ feet
lies 19 inches below the sill of a blocked door that evidences at
least one former dwelling in the space now occupied by Room 238
and Kiva D. Across the south half of 245 is an architectural feature
which, for want of an accurate term, I called the "subfloor chamber."
It was 2 feet 4 inches deep and its adobe floor rounded off with the
plaster of its four walls; ultimately it had been filled with constructional
debris and floored over, the flooring in this instance merging
with the plaster of the main room.

Embedded upright in the southwest corner of this "chamber" fill,
a 3-foot length of pine log 8 inches in diameter provided a 24-inchhigh
step to an elevated doorway that slanted upward through the
wall and into Room 246B. A foot below the top of that step a 2-inch
hole gouged from one side identified the log as one salvaged from a
kiva pilaster. I am aware of no other Pueblo Bonito example in
which a room on one level was connected with another on a different
level by means of an intermural stairway. Architecturally the idea
seems worth copying.

Mindeleff (1891) states that the oblique wall opening as a means
of conveying light to a lower room was a fairly frequent feature at
Zuñi in the mid-19th century.

Room 247, originally one with 252, is separated from the latter


Page 110
by a narrow passageway, 250, connecting Rooms 251 and 256. The
south side of this passageway is a coarsely constructed partition built
upon the floor of Room 247 and directly under one of its regular ceiling
beams. Only 16 inches north of this beam a comparable timber
seated above the second-story floor offsets, supported a masonry wall
between Rooms 247BN and 252B. Among fallen roof timbers in the
northwest corner of Room 247 we recovered 20 loosely tied bundles of
cedar bark. Over a dozen more were found in 250 (pl. 61, right).

Room 252 as last occupied had a ceiling height of only 6½ feet
but a test against its north wall revealed earlier floors at depths
of 13 inches, 2 feet 7 inches, 3 feet 11, and 5 feet 4. An original
doorway to Room 263 had been remodeled and raised at least once in
conformity with these changes in floor level (fig. 8).

Like its neighbors, Room 263 exhibits a mixture of second- and
third-type stonework. Its upper floor, despite a ceiling height of
10 feet 5 inches, lies 3 feet 8 inches below that of Room 252 and 4½
feet below that of 262 (fig. 9). There is an earlier Room 263 floor
at depth of 17 inches and 34 inches deeper a north-south foundation
extends lengthwise of the room and continues northward under
Room 265.

A 2-inch course of small laminate pieces on this subfloor foundation
offers inadequate identification but it has been plotted as a
probable third-type product (fig. 5). Standing upon this abandoned
foundation, an 8-inch-diameter post packed about with mud and
sandstone spalls, represents a probable ceiling prop that was broken
off at a height of 4 feet 3 inches, or 8 inches below the latest Room 263
floor. To our surprise, the 7 feet of waste profiled by our south-end
test pit revealed a disproportionally small amount of rock-impressed
adobe from razed walls although here, as in other units of the group,
there was abundant evidence of construction, demolition, and reconstruction.

A cross section midway of the rectangle, through Rooms 262,
263, and 258, offers additional data (fig. 9). In Room 258 the
fourth-type north and south walls, their foundations at floor level,
abut the plastered west side whose foundation lies 5 feet 2 inches
deeper. That west side is the refaced exterior of Rooms 252 and 263.
The latest floor in 263, 4½ feet below that of 262, is 3 feet 8 inches
below the latest floor in Room 252 and 32 inches below that of 258.

That our 14-room rectangular block was once the eastern limit of
the pueblo seems probable for several reasons. There are the differences
in floor level between the 14 rooms and those adjoining.


Page 111
The east foundation of Rooms 252 and 263 lies 5 feet 2 inches below
floor level in fourth-type Room 258; the east foundation of Room
245 lies 6 feet 9 inches below the latest floor of 244; and the original
north corner of Room 267, at the northeast angle of our rectangular
block, lies 4 feet 4 inches below floor level of Room 186 (pl. 32, left).
There was an apparent eastward slope all along that outer wall
evidenced, among others, by two constructional surfaces subfloor in
the southeast corner of Room 258.

Construction of these east-lying rooms, including 186, 244, and
258, followed abandonment of plans for a far-reaching extension of
Pueblo Bonito (fig. 11) and these abandoned plans, in some instances
at least, had followed earlier structures that were built, used for a
time, and then deserted by the Late Bonitians. One such is the
second-type kiva, 10 feet deep, that underlies Rooms 243, 244, and
those adjoining (fig. 4). A 33-inch-wide north-south foundation,
part of the abandoned eastward-reaching plans, bisects the kiva, rests
upon its floor at depth of 10 feet, and fills its under-floor ventilator

Another kiva whose excellent, unplastered stonework identifies
it immediately as third-type and therefore presumably a bit later than
that above, lies outside the northeast corner of Room 179 (fig. 5).
It, too, was 10 feet deep but the uppermost foot consisted of a
ceiling-pole offset of wall thickness, rimmed with relatively large
blocks of friable sandstone. An above-bench diameter of 28 feet is
indicated. Our test pit exposed a bench, 25 inches high by 32 inches
wide, its front edge somewhat broken down and, at the rear, an empty
6-inch-wide trough presumably designed for a wainscoting of posts
or dressed planks. The single pilaster we exposed here measured 18
inches wide and was set back 5 inches; wall masonry above it had
been dislodged when the pilaster log and ceiling timbers were torn

These two kivas, one of second-type construction and the other
of third-, lie outside the area known to have been occupied initially
by the Late Bonitians. Such data as we gathered suggested that the
14-room rectangular block was itself part of that initial program but,
of any second-type structures to the west of it, all have been razed
and replaced by those of a later period. Only Kiva G, with Rooms 62,
70, and those nearby retain visible evidence that they were built when
second-type masonry was in high favor.

Kiva G was revised and rebuilt at least twice. What I judge to
be part of the original second-type structure is represented by the


Page 112
convex middle south side of Room 62 and an eastward continuation
that forced a corresponding convexity in the west wall of Room 264.
This original was succeeded by a larger, elongated chamber built with
salvaged materials the plastered inner face of which is preserved in
the stonework above the south recess and in the western three-fourths
of the kiva wall. An elongation eastward resulted when the builders
sought to utilize part of the kiva they were replacing.

Finally, and apparently only to correct this asymmetry, a veneering
that approaches third-type masonry was introduced from near
Pilaster No. 1 to just short of No. 3 (pl. 68, left). As will be
noted, only the lower half of the kiva wall, old and new, was plastered.

Unlike the wall above, the Kiva G bench, 35 inches wide and 24
inches high, had been replastered repeatedly and all but the first coat
whitened. Its 6 pilasters, set back an average of 2 inches, enclose log
sections walled at the sides with small-stone masonry and thickly
plastered. Between pilasters and about 8 inches from the rear wall,
pine posts 2-3 inches in diameter supported a packing of coarse bunch
grass. Paired ceiling logs rested upon these pilasters 6 inches above
the bench and thus effectively concealed both posts and grass packing.
Lintel-like poles embedded in the rebuilt masonry are still visible
above No. 2 pilaster.

Other customary kiva furnishings were also present: A slab-lined
fireplace 2 feet in diameter; a subfloor "vault" west of the fireplace,
filled with blown sand and debris of occupation; a 15-inch-square
outlet for the under-floor ventilator duct; a south bench recess and
a north bench niche between Pilasters 3 and 4. Thus Kiva G, a lone
east wing survivor of its period, is thoroughly typical of later Pueblo
Bonito kivas as we know them.

The bench recess between Pilasters 3 and 4 was 5 inches above
the floor and measured 29 by 9 inches by 13 inches deep. It was
plastered inside and whitened. On either side of it the bench masonry
includes a section of coarse stonework closely resembling that of
Old Bonito (pl. 70, lower), but, with lean data in my field notes, I
hesitated to identify it as such on figure 3.

West of Kiva G are half a dozen rooms, 166, 167, 280-283, and
Kiva K all of third-type masonry. We assumed these several structures
overlie older rooms more or less contemporaneous with G, but
rather than dig through them we limited our search to a test pit just
outside Room 167.

That court-side test revealed not only three earlier court surfaces
but also a partially razed second-type wall 19 inches thick, emerging

No Page Number

Fig.11- Exposed portion of the Northeast Foundation Complex in
relation to Pueblo Bonito and Hillside Ruin (From the original
survey of Oscar B. Walsh.)

No Page Number


Page 113
from under Room 167 and continuing westward (pl. 33, left). About
5 feet from its point of emergence that wall was joined by another
that diverged somewhat from the line of 167 to form a small room 4
feet 3 inches wide. Despite its narrowness, this small room had been a
dwelling. Its three visible walls were plastered and the plaster
rounded to its floor, 6 feet below the surface. Part of a T-shaped door
survived on the north side, its sill at a height of 17 inches; beneath
it was an adobe step 6 inches high, its front sloping from a 9-inch base
to a 7-inch tread.

In due course this doorway had been blocked from the outside
to leave a 19-inch-deep recess within. But its lower east jamb, of
second-type masonry, continued northwest about 4 feet and there was
replaced by third-type masonry to form the east side of a narrow
chamber 3 feet 10 inches wide by 13½ feet long—a sort of forerunner
for Room 283. The outer west side of that narrow chamber, of superb
second-type stonework continuing from the small room under 167,
was based 6 feet 8 inches below the surface (pl. 34, upper).

Later and a foot higher that second-type exterior was abutted by
another wall of like construction, 18 inches thick. The two were
thickly plastered above the line of abutment as though for living
quarters but had been razed simultaneously a couple feet higher,
3 feet or thereabout below the surface. All the lower walls we bared
in this section were originally of second-type masonry but all had been
wholly or partially replaced by third-type stonework and all eventually
were wholly or partially pulled down. Finally, sealing all that had
gone before, a slab-lined fireplace 25 inches square and half as deep
found place above the abandoned walls.

That slab-lined fireplace was built on the last recognizable East
Court surface, the surface upon which the bordering court walls were
built and upon which a lone wall crosses from east to west. The original
height and purpose of this cross-wall remain unknown, but it
was late in point of time and it had meaning for the Late Bonitians. It
stood 18 inches high and 16 inches wide where we found it, abutting
the exterior of Room 165, and apparently had replaced an earlier one
on a surface 3 feet lower.

From this same point, on its 15-inch foundation, the wall extended
85 feet across court to Room 149, thence under its east wall and subfloor
at a depth of 37 inches, and under the west side. At 78 feet
5 inches from Room 165, or 6 feet 7 inches short of 149, a vertical
break, straight as a door jamb, occurred in that cross-wall. The next
3½ feet consisted of coarser stonework as though a deliberate fill-in


Page 114
and the remaining 3 feet, on a foundation 11 inches below the surface,
had been reduced to court level as though for an open passageway.

That above-court wall was paralleled at an average of 26 inches
by a near-duplicate, 21 inches high and 4 inches below ground, that
likewise passed under the east side of Room 149 and westward on an
earlier floor at depth of 37 inches. Constructed chiefly of large
blocks of dressed sandstone with relatively little chinking, this
parallel wall also appeared to be one built of material salvaged
from older structures. In composition it was neither second-type
nor fourth- but a blend of the two. Thus Room 149, itself a thirdtype-masonry
building on the periphery of Kiva A, is later than the
lone, third-type wall crossing the East Court (fig. 5).

Various test pits and trenches we cut north and south of these
cross-walls pierced earlier court surfaces exposing portions of
razed buildings that sometimes seemed self-explanatory but more
frequently defied explanation. A trench we opened outside the northeast
corner of Room 149 revealed a succession of former surfaces the
more obvious of which were at depths of 10, 20, 28 and 38 inches.
The lower 2 feet of our test exposed mixed debris of occupation and
demolition. Directly beneath the corner and at the 38-inch level we
came upon the imprint of a wattled wall, oriented east-west. On approximately
the same level but farther out we found an oval, masonrylined
repository 10 by 22 inches by 10 inches deep, finished on the
inside only and filled with shale fragments. Nearby but 10 inches
higher an unlined basin 9 inches deep likewise contained shale.

Of greater significance was a section of wall, 21 inches thick,
rough on its west side but faced with excellent second-type masonry,
plastered and whitened, that paralleled Room 149 at a distance of
4½ feet. That section proved to be our introduction to a pair of
rooms built of second-type masonry but later partly razed and
replaced with third-type stonework. Those two rooms straddled the
second-type cross-court wall we had previously discovered emerging
from beneath Room 167 32 feet 9 inches north of Room 289. However
fragmentary their masonry, the two rooms were almost equal
in size, averaging 7½ by 16 feet, and their adobe floors lay 7 feet below
the surface.

Seven feet measures the rise in court level since those second-type
walls were built. In the wall separating the two there is a former
door, 3½ feet wide and 22 inches across the sill. On the floor
below, a masonry step of door width and an 11-inch tread stands 6
inches high. Three feet 4 inches above floor level the original secondtype


Page 115
masonry of its west jamb, plaster adhering, was abruptly replaced
by foundation stonework for a third-type construction one course
of which survives upon a 3-inch-wide offset at a height of 5 feet (pl.
35, left).

In the upper part of that rebuilt west jamb, just below the
offset and 2 feet under the surface, a pair of 4-inch holes mark the
positions of horizontal timbers placed there to carry the weight of
superposed masonry. With more foundation stonework replacing
the original west wall it is obvious that here a building of second-type
masonry, its floor at a depth of 7 feet, had given way to one of thirdtype
masonry on a level 5 feet higher.

That second-type wall separating these two rooms once continued
westward under Room 149 and eastward across court to underlie
Room 167. In both directions it had fallen victim to salvaging operations.
Within 10 feet from the plastered door jamb its eastward extension
had been reduced from 40 inches to a couple courses only
and thereafter a mid-court section was razed completely to allow for
construction of Shrine Room 190 (pl. 35, right).

A companion wall, 18 inches thick and likewise of second-type
masonry, parallels that above at a distance of 7 feet 8 inches. From
its east end where it abuts older duplicating masonry 5 feet 8 inches
below the surface (pl. 34, upper), this second cross-court wall
extends west 64 feet 8 inches and there abuts the middle east side
of the north room of our 2-room unit (fig. 4). As with its opposite,
this second wall was finished on the outer face only and had been razed
irregularly, its height varying from 30 inches at its east end to 49
inches half way across the court. Here, at its highest the partially
razed wall was buried under debris of demolition with occupational
debris piled on top.

Casual tests along the length of these parallel, second-type undercourt
walls disclosed abundant evidence of demolition and reconstruction.
Wall fragments of varying width and composition were encountered
at various depths but their significance was rarely apparent
within the limits of our exploratory trenches. Some fragments were
of second-type masonry, some were of third-type and, less frequently,
some looked precisely like the best of local fourth-type stonework.
As with the two major cross-court walls, these lesser sections were
usually finished on one side only. At 21 feet 2 inches west of
Room 167 a 16-inch-wide bare foundation joined the two on their
associated pavement at depth of 6 feet 9 inches and 12 feet farther


Page 116
out on the same level a stub of typical second-type masonry buttressed
the south member of the pair.

In the rebuilt room with the plastered door jamb previously
described, the south wall foundation was laid in a dug trench.
Masonry originally erected upon that foundation was second-type but
third-type masonry had been substituted later. Here, as at the north
end, there was a south door of unusual width, 3 feet 7 inches; in its
rebuilt upper west jamb, as at the north end, two 4-inch timbers had
been installed presumably to support the later third-type masonry.
The east jamb of this former south door, plastered and whitened, had
been razed 26 inches above its associated floor at which level a new
pavement extended southward (pl. 34, lower).

A westward extension of that second-type south wall had been
razed a foot and a half outside the corner and replaced with typeless
foundation stonework that continued westward underneath the
bordering East Court masonry. A corresponding eastward extension
had been razed 2½ feet beyond its original southeast corner, perhaps
in anticipation of the second-type kiva that occupies a large proportion
of the south sub-court area.

All we know of that second-type under-court kiva was revealed
in two narrow trenches, one on the east side and the other, on the
southwest. Floor depth in the first was 12 feet 10 inches; in the
second, 11 feet 3 inches. An encircling bench averaging 30 inches
high measured 24 inches wide and we counted 19 layers of whitened
plaster on its front. The upper wall had been razed to within 3½ feet
of bench top. Neither test exposed a pilaster or other fixture.

Remnants of three more partially razed second-type kivas were
noted, subsurface, in the northeast corner of the Court. One of these
three, of pre-Kiva L vintage, was provided with a ventilator shaft
that, piled about with loose rock, occupied half the floor of a still
earlier second-type kiva. This latter had been razed almost to floor
level at depth of 5 feet 8 inches, a depth equaling that of our second
cross-court wall, adjoining.

West of this razed kiva we came upon the remains of another,
likewise of second-type masonry and partly underlying Kiva O. The
portion of its upper wall exposed in our narrow trench, measured
38 inches thick and most of its facing stones had been removed
although the exterior stood 3 feet higher. Floor lay at a depth of
7½ feet. An encircling bench, 28 inches high and 35 inches wide,
was surfaced with sandstone slabs and plastered but bore no evidence
of a pole or plank wainscoting.


Page 117

Fig. 12.—Late Bonitian Room 309 and cross section.


Page 118

Still farther west, in the far corner of the East Court, we were
all agreeably surprised to discover part of an Old Bonitian kiva—a
kiva which the Late Bonitian priesthood had pre-empted as a site
desired for their own third-type Kiva 2-C. Because that old structure
was built in the characteristic P. II tradition of the Old Bonitians I
have chosen to describe it in Chapter II (fig. 3).

A limited test in the East Court corner outside Rooms 164 and 289
showed the latter to have been built upon the last court level while
the 164 wall was based 10 inches lower. Temporary fires had burned
on that same surface, at 10 inches; below the 6-foot level, waterreworked
constructional debris and blown sand comprised the visible

South of the court-dividing wall, outside third-type Room 150
but continuing under it, were two pairs of partially razed walls
of second-type construction. The external masonry of 150 extends
only 17 inches below the latest recognizable East Court surface,
and since it overlies the two pairs, obviously was erected some time
after their abandonment. Together, their walls average 15 inches
thick and 31 inches apart; a like distance separates the first pair from
the second (fig. 4). Their associated floors at depths of 5 feet 6 inches
and 6 feet 4 inches, respectively, were covered by a purposeful fill of
sandstone spalls and shale fragments.

Although these two pairs continued westward beneath Room 150
their eastward ends were abruptly joined by blocks of abutting masonry
9 feet and 10 feet 10 inches outside the room. Beyond the endblocks
and separated from them by open passageways 17 inches
wide in one instance and 21 inches in the other, were in-line extensions
of the two pairs.

These four end-blocked pairs with passageways between are all
very much alike. Their paired walls average 15 inches wide and
31 inches from each other. Each pair stands upon a trampled surface
at depth of 5½ feet (three cases) or 6 feet 4 inches below the
latest Court surface. In each instance the paired walls had been
razed at heights varying from 22 inches to 50 inches and were packed
between with broken sandstone and shale chips. In at least one
instance the paired walls had been built in dug ditches and the space
between ditch bank and stonework filled with fragments of dried
wall adobe and shale. In all four cases the paired walls were finished
on the inside only, three of them in a coarse but undeniable version of
second-type masonry while the fourth was indefinite.

About 5 feet to the south, where the 9-inch-wide foundation offset


Page 119
of Room 151 marks the latest East Court level, the plastered and
sooted face of a nondescript wall, 10-12 inches thick, emerges from
under 151, extends east about 30 inches and then irregularly south
to an inner corner where it turns abruptly west and beneath the
east side of Room 152 (fig. 5). Here, in the 46-inch space between
this retreating wall and the Court corner, we noted 2 earlier surfaces
and an 8 by 10 inch ventilator into Room 154. Opposite, at its north
end, that plastered and soot-covered masonry had been razed about
4½ feet above its indistinct floor but there was an apparent work surface
a foot and a half lower—approximately at the same level as
one we had previously noted 6 feet 10 inches beneath the floor of
Room 152.

That 10-inch soot-covered masonry is abutted from the east by
a pair of fragmentary walls of excellent third-type masonry built on
a former court surface about 18 inches below the latest—the one in
line with the Room 151 foundation offset. The paired walls average
17 inches wide, stand 26 inches apart, and end with a rectangular
block of matching stonework 9 feet 10 inches from Court side.
They had been almost wholly razed, as I read the admittedly confusing
record, sometime prior to erection of the nondescript wall
under Room 152 and before this latter gave way to the thirdtype
stonework that now walls this portion of the East Court (pl. 4,

Following demolition of that third-type pair and on the same plane
with its razed south member, a 23-inch-wide foundation was constructed
here for some unfathomed purpose. Obviously it was not
designed, as first seemed probable, in connection with an incomplete
Court-corner dwelling, for an in-line extension of it, following a
47-inch interruption, continued eastward 20-odd feet and in the
process overlay part of the razed third-type pair.

The over-all resemblance of this third-type pair to those of secondtype
construction on a surface 4 feet lower is at once apparent.
Although their original function remains uncertain it seems significant
that these paired walls should have been repeated in practically
the same place after a time lapse represented by 4 feet of
normal court accumulation and after a change from second- to thirdtype
masonry. Because masonry was my principal guide in seeking
to trace the evolution of Pueblo Bonito some of the razed walls in
this particular corner are represented on one ground plan (fig. 4)
and some on another (fig. 5) while still others, perhaps later than
either but with no identifying stonework, are not represented at all.


Page 120

The earlier court surface that supports all these ancient walls,
razed and otherwise, slopes perceptibly southward and apparently
passes beneath the bordering south rooms at a depth of 20-25 inches.
A test trench next Room 155 failed to disclose a north foundation
but bared successive accumulations of constructional and occupational
waste. On these successive levels, sections of razed masonry
occurred repeatedly, many of third-type composition but all seemed
quite as meaningless as those we had previously encountered north
of the late cross-court wall.

Some of these older East Court walls, paired and otherwise, continue
beneath intervening rooms and out, subsurface, into the West
Court. In some instances they may be identified by remnants of surviving
masonry; in other cases identification is uncertain or impossible. In
some instances I have illogically allowed depth to influence my
judgment; hence, perhaps, the greater amount of subsurface
West Court construction represented on figure 5. But it is instructive
to note that here, as in the East Court, walls of second-type
masonry generally rise from surfaces 3 or 4 feet lower than those
of third-type.

Except for Old Bonitian Rooms 329 and 330, the West Court is
rimmed with Late Bonitian masonry and mostly at or above ceiling
level of the Old Bonitian dwellings. Beginning with Room 328 and
continuing north to Room 28 the Late Bonitians built houses of
second-type masonry at the second story level; some of these, as
Rooms 28B, 55, 57, and Kiva Z, were later wholly or partially rebuilt
with fourth-type stonework. Intermural steps were provided
to enter ground floor Room 28 after 28B, 55 and 57 were erected
above. A partially razed second-type kiva underlies Room 324 and
another underlies Kiva 67.

In 1924 while clearing the West Court in anticipation of the
next season, we came upon a very late double fireplace built on the
last recognizable Court surface just outside the northeast corner of
Old Bonitian Room 330 (pl. 17, upper). Masonry-lined and plastered,
that fireplace originally measured 3 feet 8 inches by 5 feet 7
inches but subsequently had been divided by a 2-foot partition and
continued in use.

With that last recognizable West Court surface only a foot or
so below roof level of Rooms 329 and 330 we decided to make an
exploratory test to see what lay beneath. On a former occupation
level at depth of 14 inches we came upon another, nearby fireplace
lined chiefly with metate fragments, measuring 26 by 42 inches and

No Page Number

Plate 30

Upper: North central section of Pueblo Bonito; workman stands in Room 296B. Open door at
left is in room east of 297B.

(Photograph by Neil M. Judd, 1922.)


Lower: Room 55 with second-type masonry of Room 28B (right) and fourth-type masonry
between 55 and 57 at left.

(Photograph by O. C. Havens, 1924.)

No Page Number

East end of Room 309 with south-side vault at lower right.


Plate 31

Room 308 beams with supporting post and masonry pillar.

(Photographs by Neil M. Judd, 1923.)

No Page Number

Plate 32

Left: Southwest
wall and foundation
of Room 186
(upper left) overlying
northeast corner of
original Room 267.

(Photograph by
Neil M. Judd,


Right: North
end of Room 70
with open door to
Room 99 and second-type
wall below;
wall on beam at
upper right.

(Hyde Exped. photograph.
of American Museum
of Natural

No Page Number

Plate 33

Left: The outer
west side of Room
167, repaired, overlay
partially razed
second-type walls
continuing across
the East Court.


Right: The north
wall of Room 140
preserves the original
corner of the West

(Photographs by
Neil M. Judd,


Page 121
filled with wood ash. Earlier Court levels were noted at depths of
29 inches, 38 inches, 5 feet 2 inches, and 6 feet 7.

At the 38-inch level several decayed poles 2-3 inches in diameter
protruded 2½ or 3 feet from the Room 329 exterior. They were
overlain by strips of split cedar and cedar bark but were supported,
strangely enough, by timbers paralleling the 329 exterior. Beneath
these latter were other poles, decayed and broken, and quantities of
vegetal matter, sandstone spalls and fragments of dried wall adobe.
Deeper, on a surface at depth of 6 feet 7 inches, were 9 posts or postholes,
3-5 inches in diameter (one was 8 inches), irregularly spaced
but averaging 14 inches from the Old Bonitian wall. This feature
is probably to be identified as an extension of the post-and-mud wall
represented in Rooms 327, 328, and the northeast side of 329.

In contrast with this Old Bonitian stonework, Late Bonitian
masonry now bordering the West Court was begun on or near the
last occupation level. The existing east side, for example, a mixture
of third- and banded fourth-type masonry that had toppled outward,
and which we repaired in 1924 (pl. 36, upper), replaced one whose
partially razed remains underlie Rooms 143 and 144. Blocks of
dressed friable sandstone are numerous in that earlier wall the character
of which is seen more clearly at its former southeast corner,
as preserved in Room 140 (pl. 33, right). Successive court surfaces
and walls that replaced others were encountered repeatedly throughout
the West Court. Some walls are positively of second-type construction,
some are third-type and some are foundations without
means of identification.

A sturdy wall of second-type masonry, 23 inches thick and razed
at an average height of 33 inches, emerges from under Room 146
on an associated floor 6 feet below the last West Court level, extends
northwest 31 feet 5 inches to an acute angle, thence east 3 feet 9
inches where it was demolished presumably upon construction of
Room 34. Paralleling that sub-Court wall at a distance of 3 feet
10 inches and at the same depth is another of like construction both
ends of which unite with contemporary walls that turn sharply west
and were razed after a few feet.

From the middle west side of this same parallel member, two
abutting sections likewise extend west a few feet and also were
completely razed. The second of these two provided both the base
for a solid triangle of second-type masonry and the south jamb,
now 13 inches high, of a former door in the western member of the
second-type pair (fig. 4). About 5½ feet west of that solid triangle


Page 122
and on an associated floor at depth of 6 feet 2 inches we exposed
a fireplace, 15 by 17 inches and 7 inches deep, lined with 7 slab
fragments on edge.

From the apex of that solid triangle less than 3 feet of the former
second-type wall extended west at the time of our explorations and
this remnant had been incorporated in a third-type replacement the
base of which lay 3 feet 9 inches above the second-type floor and its
fireplace or 2½ feet below the Court surface. This third-type replacement
proved to be only one of several comparable efforts in this
particular area, some of which appeared independently while others
had utilized as foundations portions of second-type masonry previously
erected and abandoned. Hence the near duplication to be
noted on our figures 4 and 5.

One of these third-type constructions, a 2-foot-wide wall razed
at a height of 22 inches, emerges from under the north end of
Room 146 to abut and overlie the partly razed second-type pair described
above and continue west a little more than 12 feet until it
was itself razed to make way for still later construction. That 22inch-high
wall remnant was built upon a 30-inch foundation rising
from the floor associated with the second-type pair at depth of 6 feet
and abutting them from either side. In that remnant, 37 inches from
the exterior of 146 is the east jamb of a former opening, 4 feet 9
inches wide and subsequently blocked, whose adobe sill rested directly
upon the partially razed second-type pair 3½ feet below the court
surface (pl. 36, lower).

At the south end of the West Court, as in the East Court, we
uncovered a succession of former occupation levels, sections of
foundations devoid of identifiable masonry, and Late Bonitian wall
fragments that seemed as much one type as another. Many of these,
but not all, have been represented on figure 5 because they were so
shallowly based they could not possibly be older than third-type.
So here, I again have substituted intuition for solid masonry as my
guide to the architecture of Pueblo Bonito. But depth, alone, is
sometimes a dependable yardstick. While walls of second-type
masonry are often based 6 feet below the surface those identifiable
as third-type rarely occur below 4 feet.

Paired walls reminiscent of those we had encountered at the
south end of the East Court emerged from under the middle of Room
144 and continued west across the plaza to disappear under the northeast
corner of the Kiva 130 enclosure (fig. 5). Where they first appeared
the pair is positively of third-type composition and their ends
are closed as were those in the East Court, by an external block


Page 123
of matching masonry (pl. 36, upper). Also, as in the East Court,
there was a so-called "passageway" at the end of this blocked pair
and a westward extension that exhibits a mixture of all our masonry
types except Old Bonitian and is, accordingly, best described as
"indefinite." The two members are each 16 inches thick and finished
on both faces; they stand 25 inches apart with an adobe pavement
between and were razed at an average height of 18 inches or 5
inches below the latest surface. Shallowness if not mixed masonry
would appear to identify this pair as a late creation in the history of
Pueblo Bonito (fig. 5).

Another, quite comparable pair of cross-court walls lies 12 feet
4 inches north of those just described and a few inches deeper. They
are cruder than the first pair, but also average 16 inches wide, stand
26-27 inches apart, and are finished on the inside only. Without
foundation, this pair was joined 30 inches below the surface by a
connecting floor that was covered by a 3-inch layer of sand and an
equal amount of shale chips. At its west end, where the pair continues
beneath the north side of the Kiva 130 enclosure, a section
of stonework resembles our second-type; elsewhere it is "indefinite."

Outside this Kiva 130 enclosure we found an assortment of razed
rooms and fragmentary walls resembling the hodgepodge in the southwest
corner of the East Court except that none was built above the
last recognized West Court surface. Earlier pavements at depths
of 10 and 23 inches abutted the whitened plaster on outer north side
of Room 131. A partly razed kiva partially underlies Kiva 130 and
what may be its cylindrical air shaft underlies a 3-room unit adjoining
(fig. 5).

Eastward from this assemblage, as in the East Court, we noted
various sections of masonry of little immediate significance and numerous
fireplaces. Among these, its orifice at the last Court level
11 feet 10 inches north of Room 134, was a masonry-lined repository
or shrine 13 inches in diameter and of equal depth. Beyond this latter
were subcourt Rooms 350 and 351 and Kiva 2-D, described elsewhere.

Here, too, occupying much of the West Court at a depth of 10 feet
or more were the remains of a completely razed Great Kiva that I at
first assumed must have been built of second-type masonry but which,
for reasons to be presented in the next chapter, I have since come to
regard as more likely one of third-type construction (fig. 5).

The Late Bonitians were endowed with an unconquerable urge to
build. They built retaining terraces beneath the Braced-up Cliff and
walls to curtail drift of waste in their two principal rubbish piles.
They built dwellings of friable sandstone, pecked or hand-smoothed


Page 124
on the surface, and destroyed those buildings to replace them with
others. And each time they razed and rebuilt they salvaged suitable
stones and timbers for reuse in their next architectural adventure.

Back of Pueblo Bonito, at the west end of the Braced-up Cliff
and built against a flat area of the canyon wall, is a one-room dwelling
and an associated kiva. The two were partly concealed by fragments
of a former rock-fall and filled with blown sand and fallen
masonry. To judge from their stonework—blocks of dressed friable
sandstone with sparse chinking—both structures are of Late Bonitian
origin and perhaps early. If others are present they were not immediately
visible. By reverting to the past tense I emphasize the fact that
our observations were made in 1927; that the little room and its
kiva may not have survived collapse of the Braced-up Cliff in 1941.

In 1927 the kiva measured 13 feet 7 inches in diameter and its
highest wall, at the north, stood 4 feet 5 inches above floor level. A
surrounding bench, flag-paved on top and adobe surfaced, averaged
17 inches wide by 34 inches high. There were no pilasters; above
and below bench level the walls were smoothly plastered. A south
bench recess, 4 feet 9 inches wide and 13½ inches deep, rose above a
subfloor ventilator duct that ended, 3½ feet from the rear wall, in a
10 by 13-inch vent. The duct, masonry-lined and flag-paved, was
13 inches wide by 19 inches deep and had been roofed ceiling-wise.
Fifteen inches beyond the opening was a plastered but unrimmed
fireplace 21 inches in diameter and 6 inches deep.

Three feet 9 inches northeast from the concave face of the kiva
and also abutting the cliff was the one-room dwelling. It measured
11½ feet on the east, 14 on the west, 9 feet 10 inches on the south,
and 10½ feet on the north. Here, at the north, eight seatings for
roof poles had been pecked into the sandstone 7 feet above the floor.
A large rock incorporated in the east side had been utilized for whetting
bone awls and like tools. About 2 feet from the northeast corner 3
human foot prints, pecked into the sandstone and averaging 6 inches
wide by 10 inches long, marched single file up the cliff face. The
lowermost of the three was half concealed by the adobe floor and its
underlying debris but of greater interest was the fact that each of
the three was represented with six toes (pl. 81, lower). A smaller,
5-toed print, the only normal one in the lot, likewise had been partly
buried. These 4 carvings and a zigzag figure incised on the middle
north wall apparently illustrate the full range of our unknown artist's

Pecked beam seatings grouped at intervals along the canyon wall
east of Pueblo Bonito unquestionably mark the positions of other
former 1- and 2-room houses.