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No Page Number



Prof. Peters.

The subjects taught in this school are the Latin Language and Literature,
with the History of Rome. The school is divided into two classes—
Junior and Senior.

Text-books.  Junior Class—Sallust, Ovid, Terence, Cicero de Officiis, Horace. 
Senior Class—Horace, Seneca, Juvenal, Livy, Cicero, Tacitus. 
Grammars.  Zumpt's, Gildersleeve's, Roby's, Printed Lectures of the Professor. 
Lexicons.  Andrew's, or Freunds' Leverett. 
History.  Browne's Roman Literature, Liddell's Rome, Long's Atlas. 

Instruction is given by lectures, and by examinations upon the portions
of text assigned for recitation. The exercises of rendering Latin into
English, and English into Latin, in writing, constitute a prominent feature
in the course. In addition to the portions of the several authors
read in the lecture-room, a course of extra and parallel reading is required
in each class. The examination for graduation is not limited to
the portions read in the lecture-room, nor to the parallel reading. The
different systems of Latin versification are fully explained by lectures,
and the general subject applied by readings and metrical exercises.


The Professor of Latin will also give instruction in Sanskrit.

Text-books.—Monier Williams' Grammar, Benfey's Lexicon, selections from the


Prof. Price.

The school is divided into three classes—Junior, Intermediate, and
Senior. The method of instruction is by lectures (systematic and exegetical),
by examination, and by written and oral exercises.


Page 27

Junior Class—The Junior Class, for which a full knowledge of the Attic inflections
and some experience in translation are demanded, is intended especially for those that
wish to acquire a practical familiarity with the simpler Attic prose, both in reading and
in writing it. The authors read in this class are Xenophon and Lysias.

Grammars.—Curtius's, Goodwin's Elementary.

History.—Fyffe's and Cox's Histories.

Intermediate Class.—The Intermediate Class is intended to give a knowledge of
the Ionic and Doric Dialects. The authors read are Homer, Herodotus, and Theocritus.

Text-books.—Curtius's Grammar, and Bojesen's Antiquities.

Senior Class.—Demosthenes, Plato, Thucydides, Sophocles or Euripides.

Grammars.—Goodwin's Moods and Tenses, and Curtius's.

Lexicons.—Liddell and Scott, and Veitch's Greek Verbs.

The Geography and Political History of Greece are taught in the
Junior Class, Political and Religious Antiquities in the Intermediate, and
History of Literature, Metres and Historical Grammar in the Senior.

For each class a private course of reading also is prescribed.

In each class written exercises in Greek composition are required
every week.

In the examination of candidates for graduation, the passages given
for translation are selected, not from the portions read and explained in
the lecture-room, but from the classic writers at will.

Post-Graduate Department.—The Post-Graduate Department has
been instituted for the benefit of graduates and others who wish to pursue
a more extended course of reading. The authors read in this department
are such as are, either by their form or subjects, less suited for
the regular school; e. g. Æschylus, Aristophanes, and Aristotle.


The Professor of Greek will also give instruction in Hebrew whenever
the demand for such instruction is sufficient to make the institution of a
course of lectures expedient.



Page 28


Prof. Schele De Vere.

The subjects taught in this school are:

1. The French, German, Italian and Spanish languages.

2. The Literature of these languages, and the History of each idiom, embracing the
general principles of the formation and growth of Language, and of Comparative Grammar
and Philology.

3. The Anglo-Saxon language, and in connection with it, the History and Laws of
the English language.

Graduation in French and German is required for the degree of A. M.
Diplomas of Graduation are conferred in each of the four languages
mentioned in § 1 and 2; a certificate of Proficiency in Anglo-Saxon.


Text-BooksJunior Class.—The Professor's Grammar and First Reader, Télémaque,
Saintine's Picciola, Masson's Dictionary.

Senior Class.—The Professor's Grammar, Molière, Racine, Voltaire, Saintine's
Picciola, Masson's or Littré's Dictionary. A course of private reading is prescribed.


Junior Class.—Otto's Grammar, Whitney's Reader, Schiller's William Tell, Whitney's

Senior Class.—Whitney's Grammar, Whitney's Dictionary, Schiller's Works,
Gœthe's Autobiography and Faust, Jean Paul's Flegeljahre. A course of private
reading is prescribed.


The Professor's Grammar, Seoane's Dictionary, Colmena Española, Don Quixote,
Calderon's El Principe Constante, Lope's Estrella de Sevilla, Tichnor's History of
Spanish Literature.


Bacchi's Grammar, Monti's Reader, Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi, Tasso's Gerusalemme
Liberata, Pellíco's Le Mie Prigioni, Dictionary.


Shute's Manual of Anglo-Saxon, The Professor's Studies in English, March's Anglo-Saxon


Page 29


Prof. Noah K. Davis.

The subjects of this school are treated as follows:

I. In Psychology, the Intellectual Powers are viewed as modes of
consciousness, and distributed as Presentation, Representation, and
Reason. The discussion, having evolved the Laws of Pure Thought, is
followed immediately by the course in Logic. The psychology of the
Sensibilities and Will is then considered, followed by the course in Ethics.
Constant appeal is made to reflective consciousness as the ultimate test
of truth in Psychological Science.

Text-Books.—Hamilton's Metaphysics, Mansel's Metaphysics, Kant's Critique of
Pure Reason.

II. In Logic both the Aristotelic and Hamiltonian analyses are applied
to many examples, and select arguments reduced to syllogistic statement.
Special attention is given to the nature and methods of inductive inference.

Text-Books.—Hamilton's Logic, Mill's Logic.

III. In Ethics the intuitional theory is maintained against utilitarianism.
The chief problems of ethical science are discussed, and its principles
applied to personal and social duty.

Text-Books.—Calderwood's Hand Book of Moral Philosophy, Stewart's Active and
Moral Powers, Blackie's Four Phases of Morals.

IV. In Philosophy an outline of the history of speculation is given,
from Plato to Hegel. The opinions of the various schools are sketched,
the views of different philosophers compared and criticised, and the principles
of Ontology examined.

Text-Book.—Ueberweg's History of Philosophy.

The class is examined on the subject as developed by the lectures,
supplemented by such portions of the text-books as may be indicated by
the Professor.

Political Economy.

Those studying this subject constitute a separate class. The lectures
discuss the relations of Labor and Capital, also various systems of
Currency, Banking, Finance, and Taxation, with special reference to what


Page 30
is peculiar in the physical condition, political and social institutions, and
industrial pursuits of our own country. Fundamental questions in
Sociology are also considered.

Text-Books.—Mill's Principles of Political Economy, and Bowen's American Political


Prof. Holmes.

This School is divided into two distinct classes—one of History and
one of Literature and Rhetoric. To each, two lectures in the week are
regularly devoted; but exercises in literary composition are required
from the members of the Literary Class. Each study may be pursued

Class of History.

In the Historical Class the successions, revolutions, and various aspects
of the principal nations of the world are considered in such a manner as
to afford a general and connected view of the progress of political and
social organizations. Insstitutions and laws are noted as the manifestations
of different phases of society; an attempt is made to discover and
elucidate the conditions of historical advancement, and to refer the
changes of nations and governments to the operation of regular principles.

Text-Books.—Schmitz's Manual of Ancient History; Smith's History of Greece;
Gibbon, abridged by Smith; Taylor's Manual of Modern History.

For reference.—Kiepert's Atlas Antiquus, or Long's Ancient Atlas; Appleton's (College)
Atlas: Chambers' Atlas, or other Modern Atlas.

Class of Literature and Rhetoric.

In the Class of Literature and Rhetoric, the English Language, English
Composition, Rhetoric, and the English Classics, with the History
of English Literature, are studied.

The origin, growth, and philological peculiarities of the Language are
considered; the various influences, domestic and external, by which it


Page 31
has been brought to its present condition, are explained; the general
principles of Rhetoric and Criticism are taught; the lives of the most
eminent authors in the language are treated in their historical order and
connection; and the critical examination and appreciation of their chief
productions occupy much of the time of the student. The class will also
be required to practise Literary Composition.

Text-Books.—Jamieson's Grammar of Rhetoric; Keane, Handbook of the English
Language; Shaw's Complete Manual of English Literature, Ed. Smith and Tuckerman;
Student's Specimens of English Literature, Ed. Shaw and Smith, London.

Shakspeare's Complete Works; Milton's Poetical Works.

For instruction in Oratory or spoken composition, those portions of
Dr. Broadus's Treatise on the Preparation and Delivery of Sermons
which are appropriate to secular purposes, are specially commended.
The study of Angus's Handbook of the English Language is also recommended.


Prof. Venable.

This school embraces two distinct departments or courses:

  • 1. Pure Mathematics.

  • 2. Mixed Mathematics.

Pure Mathematics.

In the course of Pure Mathematics there are three classes—Junior,
Intermediate, and Senior.

Junior Class.—Theory of Arithmetical Notation and Operations, Algebra, Geometry,
Geometrical Analysis, Elementary Plane Trigonometry. The preparation desirable
for entrance into this class is the thorough study of Arithmetic, of Algebraic
Operations through Equations of the Second Degree, and of Plane Geometry.

Intermediate Class.—Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry of
two dimensions, the Elements of Descriptive Geometry, and of the Theory of Equations.

Senior Class.—Analytical Geometry of three Dimensions, Differential and Integral
Calculus, Calculus of Variations, and Theory of Equations. Lectures are given in this
class on the History of Mathematics, and on the elements of some of the modern
Mathematical Theories.


Page 32

Text Books.

Junior Class.—Todhunter's Algebra, Venable's Legendre's Geometry.

Intermediate Class.—Snowball's Trigonometry, Law's Logarithms, Puckle's
Conic Sections, Church's Descriptive Geometry.

Senior Class.—Aldis's Solid Geometry, Courtenay's Calculus, Todhunter's Differential
and Integral Calculus, Todhunter's Theory of Equations.

In the Junior Class there are three Lectures each week; in the Intermediate
Class, two Lectures each week; in the Senior Class, three
Lectures each week.

Mixed Mathematics.

This course is designed for those students who may desire to prosecute
their studies beyond the limits of the Pure Mathematics. It embraces
Applications of the Differential and Integral Calculus to selected
portions of Mechanics, Physics, and Physical Astronomy. There is one
class in Mixed Mathematics.

In the class of Mixed Mathematics there are two Lectures each week.

The instruction in each class in the School of Mathematics is conveyed
partly by lectures and partly by the systematic study of approved textbooks.
The student is assisted by full and frequent explanations from
the Professor, and constantly subjected to rigid examinations. The progress
of the student in each class is also tested by his being required to
perform written exercises, in which the principles acquired are applied to
the solution of particular problems.

Any student entering the school has the privilege of attending all or
any of the classes, and if prepared to enter an advanced class, may often
find it highly advantageous to review his previous studies by attendance
on a lower class also.


Prof. Smith.

This School includes two departments—General Physics and Practical

I. General Physics.

Junior Class.—The Junior Class meets three times in each week
throughout the session of nine months. The object of the course of


Page 33
lectures to this class is to furnish the student with a comprehensive view
of Modern Physics, and to make him familiar with its methods of investigation.
With the design of laying a thoroughly scientific basis for the
course, a large space is given at the outset to the discussion of the cardinal
doctrines of motion, force and energy, and to their simpler applications
in the pressure and motion of visible masses.

With this preparation the student proceeds to the subject of Molecular
Physics, embracing Sound, Light, Heat and Electricity. Throughout the
course the established laws of motion and force are kept steadily in view,
and an attempt is made to exhibit the evidence, daily becoming stronger
and clearer, for the prevalent belief among scientists, that the entire body
of Physics is a coherent and harmonious system of mechanical truth.

Text-Book.—The Professor's Syllabus.

For Reference.—Everett's Privat Deschanel; Jamin; Daguin.

Senior Class.—This class meets thrice each week, and studies Mechanics
and Astronomy.

Text-Books.—Cummings' Electricity.

Norton's Astronomy, with Chauvenet's Astronomy for reference.

Candidates for graduation in the school of Natural Philosophy are required
to attend only the foregoing classes.

II. Practical Physics.

To meet the wants of students who may be preparing themselves to
become teachers of science, and of those who, for other reasons, desire to
push their studies in Physics beyond the limits of the lecture room course,
the Visitors have recently instituted a special department with the above
title, and have authorized a separate diploma of graduation to be given
to such as exhibit proficiency in its exercises. The course of instruction
in this class will be partly theoretical and partly experimental, embracing
the following topics:

A. Theoretical.—Reduction of observations. Graphical representation
of results. Interpolation. Method of Least Squares. Essays on
prescribed Physical topics.

B. Experimental.—In this, the main portion of the course, the student
will learn physical manipulation, and the use of instruments by actual


Page 34

1. Lecture-room Apparatus and Lecture-room Experiments.

2. Physical measurements and "instruments of precision." Cathetometer.
Spherometer. Dividing Engine. Goniometer. Balance. Syren.
Monochord. Revolving Mirror. Photometer. Microscope. Spectroscope.
Polariscope. Electrometer. Galvanometer. Meteorological
instruments, with daily use of the same.

Text-Books.—Chauvenet, "Method of Least Squares,"—Pickering, "Physical
Manipulation,"—Kohlrausch, "Physical Measurements,"—McCulloch, "Theory of


These subjects are, for the present, annexed to the school of Natural
Philosophy, and are assigned to a separate class, which the members of
other classes in the School may attend without payment of an additional
fee. The lectures embrace Physical Geography and Mineralogy, so far
as they are indispensable to the student of Geology. Special reference
is made to the Geological structure of Virginia and the neighbouring

Students in this class will hereafter have the help of the large collections
of the new Natural History Museum.

Text-Book.—Leconte's Elements of Geology.


Prof. Mallet.

In this school there are two classes:

I. The class in general Chemistry hears three lectures each week
throughout the session. The fundamental ideas of chemical science, the
relations of Chemistry to Physics, the laws regulating chemical combinations
by weight and by volume, the atomic theory as at present viewed
in connection with Chemistry, the chemical nomenclature and symbols
now in use, and a general survey of the descriptive chemistry of the elements


Page 35
and their compounds, inorganic and organic, are brought forward
in order, with incidental allusion to the applications in medicine, the arts
and manufactures, of the facts mentioned.

The attention of medical students is particularly drawn to the physiological,
medical, and sanitary relations of the subject.

Text-Books.—"Fownes' Chemistry," last edition. Recommended for reference:
Miller's "Elements of Chemistry;" A. Naquet—"Principes de Chimie fondée sur les
théories modernes."

Lectures on Pharmacy are given to the students of medicine, this
special course beginning soon after the intermediate examinations.

Text-Book.—Parrish's Pharmacy.

II. The class in Industrial Chemistry, to which class also three lectures
a week are delivered, studies in detail the chemical principles and
processes specially concerned in the more important arts and manufactures,
upon which, in large measure, depends the development of the
natural resources of the country, the opportunity being thus presented
of preparation for such positions as those of the miner and metallurgist,
the chemical manufacturer, the dyer, bleacher, tanner, sugar refiner, etc.

Amongst the more important subjects discussed are: the production
of MATERIALS OF VERY GENERAL APPLICATION, including the metallurgy
of iron, copper, lead, zinc, tin, silver, gold, etc.; the preparation and
properties of alloys, and the processes of electro-metallurgy, the manufacture
upon the large scale of acids, alkalies, salts, glass, porcelain, and
earthenware; the production and preservation of FOOD, including the
processes of bread-baking, wine-making, brewing, and distilling; the
manufacture of sugar and vinegar, the curing of meat, the examination
and purification of drinking water, etc.; chemical arts relating to CLOTHING,
such as bleaching, dyeing, calico printing, tanning, and the preparation
of India rubber; the chemistry of those arts which afford us SHELTER,
embracing the examination of building materials, lime-burning, the manufacture
of mortar and cement; the explosive agents used in blasting, as
gunpowder, gun-cotton, nitro-glycerine, paints and varnishes, disinfecting
materials, etc.; HEATING and VENTILATION, the different kinds of fuel,
and modes of burning them; ILLUMINATION by artificial means, candles,
lamps, the preparation of petroleum, the manufacturing of illuminating,
gas. matches; the chemistry of WASHING, the preparation of soap, starch,


Page 36
and perfumes; the chemical relations of PRINTING and WRITING, the
manufacture of paper, ink, artists' colors, photographic materials, etc.

Text Books.—Wagner's "Chemical Technology." For reference: Richardson and
Watt's "Chemical Technology;" Muspratt's "Chemistry as Applied to Arts and Manufactures;"
Ure's "Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures;" Dumas—"Traité de
Chimie appliquée aux Arts;" Percy's "Metallurgy," etc.

The lectures to both these classes are illustrated by suitable experiments,
and by such specimens, models, drawings, etc., as the various
subjects require. The collections of the University in illustration of the
processes and products of Industrial Chemistry have been procured with
much expense and pains in this country, England, France, and Germany,
and are unusually extensive and good—amongst the best on this side of
the Atlantic.


Adjunct Prof. Thornton.

The business of this department is distributed among three classes, as


1. Engineering Geodesy, including Land Surveying, Levelling, and
Topographical Surveying, with Field work, which is continued throughout
the course.

2. Theory of Parallel Projections, Orthogonal, Axonometric and
Oblique, with the Construction of Shades and Shadows.

3. Construction and Setting out of Roads, Railways, Tunnels, and

4. Elementary Free-hand and Topographical Drawing.


Page 37


1. Theory of Central Projections, or Linear Perspective.

2. Resistance of Materials, and Stability of Constructions in Earth,
Masonry, Wood and Metals, including the Construction of Foundations.
Retaining Walls, Arches, Bridges, and Roofs.

3. Higher Geodesy, and the Projection of Maps.

4. Free-hand and Topographical Drawing, Constructive Drawing and


1. Theoretical and Constructive Mechanism, and the Mechanics of

2. Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Hydraulic Motors.

3. Thermodynamics, Theory of the Steam Engine.

4. Mechanical Drawing and Design.

Text-Books.—Rankine's "Civil Engineering;" Warren's "Descriptive Geometry;"
Warren's "Linear Perspective;" Smith's "Topographical Drawing;" Rankine's
"Machinery and Mill Work;" Barry's "Railway Appliances." Trautwine's Pocket

Lectures are delivered supplementary to the text-books, and also systematic
lectures on subjects for which no suitable text-book is attainable.


The course of Agricultural Engineering embraces selected portions of
the course of Civil Engineering, together with a further course on the
construction and use of Agricultural Machines.


The course of Mining Engineering embraces selected portions of the
course of Civil Engineering, together with the Theory of Underground
Surveying, Setting out Underground Works, and the construction and
use of Machines used in the working of Mines.


Page 38


Prof. Mallet. Adjunct Prof Dunnington.

In Analytical Chemistry there are three classes:

I. The first class meets twice each week during the session, on each
occasion spending from two to four hours in practical experiments in the
laboratory. A regularly arranged course of practice in chemical manipulation
is first pursued; qualitative analysis is then taken up, and the
means of detecting the most important chemical substances having been
learned, students are required to find out for themselves, by analysis, the
constituents of unknown materials presented to them. Special attention
is given to substances having useful applications in the arts or connected
with agriculture. Towards the close of the session, the elements of
quantitative analysis are taught, as far as the limitation of time will

II. The laboratory will be open to the second class on six days of
each week during the whole of the working hours of each day. A full
course of instruction in practical chemistry, including the qualitative and
quantitative analysis of ores, soils, manures, technical products, etc., will
be given; and students will be assisted and encouraged to undertake
original research.

III. The third class is one specially intended for students of medicine,
and will meet for lessons of two hours each, twice in the week, for two
months of the session. To this class the practical applications of chemistry
to medicine will be taught, the detection of poisons, chemical and
microscopical examination of animal products, urine, blood, etc.

Among the works recommended to laboratory students are: Fresenius—"Qualitative
and Quantitative Analysis"; H. Rose—"Handbuch der analytischen Chemie" (also in
French translation); Greville Williams—"Handbook of Chemical Manipulation";
Woehler—"Examples for practice in Chemical Analysis"; Von Kobell—"Tafeln zur
Bestimmung der Mineralien," (also in English Translation); Bolley—"Handbuch der
technisch-chemischen Untersuchungen": Odling—"Practical Chemistry for Medical
Students"; A. H. Church—"Laboratory Guide for Agricultural Students."

Besides the above there will also be a class in Practical Pharmacy,
specially intended for medical students, which will receive twelve lessons
during the latter half of the session.


Page 39

Text-Books.—Parrish's Pharmacy; with Wood and Bache's "United States Dispensatory,"
for reference.

In Agricultural Chemistry there is one class, to which lectures are delivered
once a week throughout the session; or, when found more convenient
to students of agriculture, a larger number of lectures per week
will be given during a part of the year only.

In this course the chemical and physical properties of soils, of the
atmosphere, and of plants, chemistry of the processes of vegetable life and
growth, the composition and chemical preparation of manures, etc., will
be discussed.

Text-Books.—S. W. Johnson—"How Crops Grow," and "How Crops Feed." For
reference—J. F. W. Johnston—"Agricultural Chemistry"; R. Hoffman—"Theoretisch-praktische

Farmers who are not regular students of the University, but may desire
to attend this special course, are freely invited to do so.

Very liberal provision has been made in the way of material arrangements
for the teachings of this Chair. A new laboratory building of
ample size, specially designed for the purposes of working students, has
been erected, containing all necessary rooms, fitted with double windows
for the preservation of uniform temperature, and amply supplied with gas,
water, and all proper laboratory fixtures; and all needful apparatus, chemicals,
minerals, materials for analysis, etc., have been imported from Europe
in abundance.


Prof. John R. Page.

This school is divided into three classes, viz: Zoology, Botany, and

I. Zoology includes the study of the leading principles of this science,
with special reference to the Anatomy, Physiology, and Morphology of
typical species throughout the animal kingdom.


Page 40

Special lectures are given during this course on Insects injurious to
Vegetation, Fish and Oyster culture, and the breeding, rearing, and
diseases of Domestic Animals. The addition of the fine collection of
Zoological specimens in the Brookes Museum largely increases the
facilities for study in this branch.

II. Botany includes a minute history of the structure, physiology and
morphology of the plant, in embryo, root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and
formation of seed.

During this course, special lectures are given on Noxious Weeds and
Useful Plants. and the Fungoid diseases of Plants.

III. Agriculture.—This course is divided into two parts, Experimental
and Practical.

1. Experimental Agriculture has reference to the food of Plants in the
Atmosphere and Soil; the formation, variety, classification and adaptation
of soils to various crops, illustrated by suitable experiments.

2. Practical Agriculture relates to the Soil Cultivated, its nature, exposure
and drainage; the importance of making Domestic Manures and
their application; use of Fertilizers, with experiments, in order to show
their effects. Tillage is illustrated practically on the farm, in plowing,
subsoiling, harrowing, rolling, etc.; in preparing the land for the reception
of Seed, as well as in the cultivation of Crops. Special instruction is
given in regard to the practical management of teams, and in the various
mechanical operations on the farm.

The lectures in the three classes are delivered concurrently throughout
the session, as far as practicable.

The following Text-Books will be used in this School:

"Manual of Zoology," Nicholson; "School and Field Book of Botany," Gray; "How
Crops Grow," Johnson; "How Crops Feed," Johnson; "Scientific Agriculture,"

The following may be usefully referred to in connection with different parts of the
course: Carpenter's "Zoology"; Harris' "Insects Injurious to Vegetation"; Chapman's
"Flora of the Southern States"; "How to Farm Profitably," Mechi: "Muck
Manual," Dana; "American Weeds and Useful Plants," Darlington.