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The many changes in Ruskin's calligraphy spanning more than a half century are illustrated in S. Holt Schooling, "The Handwriting of John Ruskin," Strand, 10 (1895), 669-80. See also Schooling, "The Signatures of Napoleon," ibid., pp. 527-37.


Madeline House and Graham Storey, eds., The Letters of Charles Dickens, Pilgrim Edition, I (1965), xxiv-xxv; II (1969), xiii.


Theodora Van Wagenen Ward, "Characteristics of the Handwriting," The Poems of Emily Dickinson, ed. Thomas H. Johnson (1955), I, xlix-lix.


C. B. Tinker and H. F. Lowry, "Arnold's 'Dover Beach,'" TLS, October 10, 1935, p. 631.


Warren D. Anderson, Matthew Arnold and the Classical Tradition (1965), p. 69.


Tinker and Lowry, The Poetry of Matthew Arnold: A Commentary (1940), p. 173. (Hereafter cited as Commentary.)


David Allen Robertson, Jr. "'Dover Beach' and 'Say Not the Struggle Naught Availeth,'" PMLA, 66(1951), 919-26.


John Racin, "'Dover Beach' and the Structure of Meditation," VP, 8(1970), 53-54.


Kenneth Allott, ed., The Poems of Matthew Arnold (1965), pp. 239-40, established the position of the majority.


Tinker and Lowry, TLS, p. 631; Allott, "The Dating of 'Dover Beach,'" N & Q, N.S. 14(1967), 375.


Allott, Poems, pp. 239-40; R. H. Super, "The Dating of 'Dover Beach,'" N & Q, N.S. 14(1967), 61; Allott, ibid., p. 375; Paull F. Baum, Ten Studies in the Poetry of Matthew Arnold (1958), p. 86.


Michael Thorpe, "The Dating of 'Dover Beach,'" N & Q, N.S. 14(1967), 375-76; Baum, p. 85; Louis Bonnerot, Matthew Arnold, Poète (1947), 369-71, 372n.; J. D. Jump, Matthew Arnold (1955), pp. 75-76.


Burton R. Pollin, "'Dover Beach' and 'Andrea del Sarto,'" VN, No. 33 (Spring 1968), 58-59.


Paul Turner, "'Dover Beach' and The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich," ESt, 28(1947), 173-78 and Buckner B. Trawick, "The Sea of Faith and the Battle by Night in 'Dover Beach,'" PMLA, 65 (1950), 1282-83.


I wish to thank Mr. Stephen Wood for preparing the final version of this chart.


The number of pages of manuscript used is as follows: 1849—30, 1850—28, 1851—159, 1852—92, 1853—139, 1855—93. From 1851 on, Arnold's diaries were available, thus accounting for the great expansion in material. The increase, though considerable, is not so great as the numbers suggest, however, for Arnold wrote little on some of the pages of his diaries.


A. Dwight Culler, Imaginative Reason (1966), p. 40.


This research has been carried out under a Union College-Ford Foundation Faculty Development Grant.