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Editorial policy regarding historical place-names and significant names may go unnoticed when reading an individual play in a particular edition; on the basis of the cumulative evidence of a larger sample of names and editions, however, the surprising diversity and the changes in editorial attitudes become recognizable. From the authoritative texts to the editions of the last century an uninterrupted tradition of gradual modernization can be observed which comprises historical and significant names. The Cambridge Edition represents a turning point in this process. With historical names Clark and Wright preserved the stage of modernization which had already been attained; the twentieth century introduced the new tendency of returning to Elizabethan forms. With significant names the Cambridge editors restored a number of Elizabethan forms, both in cases where the meaning


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was obvious and in cases where the internal evidence was perhaps considered insufficient for a particular significance; twentieth-century editors have resumed the modernization process, taking the Cambridge readings as their starting point.

In regard to both modernization and restoration, the practices of modern editors can be called at best experimental, at worst inconsistent. Each edition offers a different example of a compromise between editorial tradition and a partial reconsideration of the problem. No editor has consistently applied a recognizable principle; this is also true of those who simply preserve the Cambridge readings for they are on no safer ground. The inconsistency is the same whether a single editor or many (Arden, Yale) have prepared the texts. No two editions modernize or restore the same names. Three different editors may retain — in addition to the special cases of well-known characters — only three old forms, but the three names are never identical: W. J. Craig, for example, preserves Bede, Dizie, Dumbe; Wilson has Belman, Dizie, Turph; Sisson retains Belman, Dumbe, Turph. A similar phenomenon can be observed with place-names: Kittredge has Calais, Frankford, Harflew; the New Arden reads Callice (only R2), Frankfort, Harfleur; the Revised Yale offers Callice, Frankfort, Harflew.

Modern-spelling editions have been termed "semi-popular" and it is obvious that they cannot provide the best text for the Shakespeare scholar. But they will always present the main access to the plays, both for the general reader and for many a serious student of literature. Those readers who prefer a modern-spelling edition deserve to be offered a scholarly text prepared in a way which enables them to grasp the Shakespearean meaning as fully and as directly as present-day orthography permits. In such a case the need for an editor to be faithful to his original cannot be understood as an exact replication of selected copy-text forms. Quite apart from the possibility that these may be accidental and not authorial, it must be taken into account that they change their nature in a modernized context and begin to convey impressions which no longer reflect the author's intentions. It may be tempting to preserve some Elizabethan flavor with at least the proper names, but this can only be done at the expense of clarity. The principle of full modernization, once embraced, has to be applied without exception since it is only this method, paradoxically enough, that is able to reflect the Shakespearean meaning within the new context.


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In this survey the modern editions consulted are listed in the order of their dates of publication in order to indicate possible dependencies. The following abbreviations have been used: G = Cambridge and Globe Editions; C = W. J. Craig (1892, Oxford Standard Authors 1905); A = Arden Shakespeare (1899-1924); N = W. A. Neilson (Riverside Edition, 1906; C. J. Hill's revised edition of 1942 makes no changes in proper names); Y = Yale Shakespeare (1917-1927); NC = New Cambridge Shakespeare (1921-1966); R = M. R. Ridley (New Temple Shakespeare, 1934-1936); K = G. L. Kittredge (1936); P = T. M. Parrott (1938; selection); Al = P. Alexander (1951); NA = New Arden Edition (1951-); S = C. J. Sisson (1954); RY = Revised Yale Edition (1954-); M = J. Munro (London Shakespeare, 1957). In addition, the forms preferred by H. Kökeritz, Shakespeare's Names: A Pronouncing Dictionary (1959), are included under the abbreviation "Kö". Some editions adopt the Cambridge readings in all cases and have, therefore, not been listed independently: C. H. Herford (Eversley Edition, 1899-1900); G. B. Harrison (1948); H. Craig (1951). The numbers preceding the OED variants refer to the centuries in which these forms were used (e.g. 6 = 16th century).

Name in Modernized Form  Qq, Ff Emendations Modernizations  Modern Editions 
BEAD (PEAD)  Q1: Pead  ___ 
WIV 5.5.47  F1: Bede  G, C, Y, R, M 
Theobald i: Pede  Al 
Collier i: Bead  A, N, NC, K, S, Kö 
OED: 3-7 bede 
BELLMAN  F1: Belman  G, A, N, Y, NC, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö 
SHR Ind.1.20  Bellman  C, RY 
OED: 4-7 bel 
CALAIS  Q1 (R2), F1: Callice  RY (R2, H5), NA (R2) 
JN, R2, H5, 1H6, 3H6  Rowe i:  G, C, A, N, Y, R, K, NC, P, Al, S, NA (JN, H5, 1H6, 3H6), M, Kö 
Pope i: 
DIZZY  F1: Dizie  K, P, M, Kö, NA 
MM 4.3.11  F2: Dizy  G, C, A, NC, Al 
Pope i: Dizzy  N, Y, R, RY, S 
Steevens: Dicey  ___ 
OED: 6-7 dizie 
DUMB  Q: Dumbe  G, C, N, Y, A, R, K, P, Al, S, M 
2H4 2.4.83  F1: Dombe  ___ 
F3: Domb  ___ 
Capell: Dumb  NC, Kö, NA 
OED: 4-7 dumbe 
4-7 dombe 


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ELBE  Qq1-3: Elme  ___ 
H5 1.2.45,52  F1: Elue  ___ 
F2: Elve 
Capell: Elbe  G, C, A, N, Y, K, P, NC, Al, NA, S, RY, M, Kö 
FRANKFORT  Q1, F1: Franckford  ___ 
MV 3.1.73  F4: Frankford 
Rowe iii: Frankfort  G, C, A, N, Y, NC, R, P, Al, S, NA, M, Kö, RY 
GISORS  F1: Guysors  G, C, A, N, R, K, Al, NC, S, M, Kö, NA 
1H6 1.1.61 
HARFLEUR  Qq, F1: Harflew  K, RY 
H5  Rowe i: Harfleur  G, C, A, N, Y, P, NC, Al, NA, S, M, Kö 
KIMBOLTON  F1: Kymmalton  ___ 
H8 4.1.34  F3: Kimbolton  G, C, N, A, Y, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö, NC 
Kimmalton  NA 
LANCE TGV  F1: Launce  G, C, A, N, NC, Y, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö 
Lance  ___ 
OED: 3-8 launce 
LANCELET/LANCELOT MV  Q1: Launcelet  ___ 
Q2, F1: Launcelet  ___ 
Lancelet  ___ 
Rowe i: Launcelot  G, C, A, N, Y, R, K, P, Al, NA, M, Kö, RY 
Lancelot  NC, S 
OED: 6 launcelet 
AWW 4.4.9  F1: Marcellæ  ___ 
F2: Marsellis 
Rowe i: Marsellies  ___ 
Rowe iii: Marseilles  G, C, N, Y, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö 
Marseillës  NC 
Marcellus  NA 
AWW 4.5.72  F1: Marcellus  NA 
F2: Marsellis 
Rowe i: Marsellies  ___ 
Pope i: Marseilles  G, C, N, Y, NC, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö 
SHR 2.1.367  F1: Marcellus  ___ 
F2: Marsellis  ___ 
Rowe i: Marsellies  ___ 
Pope i: Marseilles'  G, C, A, N, Y, NC, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö 
Marcellus'  RY 


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MEISSEN  Qq1-3: Mesene  ___ 
H5 1.2.53  F1: Meisen  G, C, A, N, Y, R, K, P, NC, Al, S, M, Kö [Meis(s)en] 
Meissen  NA, RY 
MOTE LLL  Qq, F1: Moth  G, C, N, A (LLL), NC, Y, R, K, P, NA (LLL), Al, S, M, Kö 
MND 3.1.148  White: Mote  A (MND) 
OED: 6-7 (?moth) 
OATCAKE  Q, F1: Ote-cake  ___ 
ADO 3.3.10  F4: Otecake  G, A, M 
Rowe iii: Oatecake  ___ 
Johnson i: Oatcake  C, N, Y, NC, R, K, P, Al, S, Kö 
OED: 4-7 ote 
PIMPERNEL  F1: Pimpernell  G, C, A, N, Y, NC, R, K, Al, RY, S, M, Kö 
SHR Ind. 2.92 
Capell: Pimpernel  ___ 
OED: 6-7 pimpernell 
JN 1.1.11  F1: Poyctiers  ___ 
1H6 1.1.61  F1: Poictiers 
1H6 4.3.45  F1: Poytiers  ___ 
Pope i: Poictiers  G, C, A, N, R, K, Al, NC, NA, S, M 
Poitiers  Y, Kö [Poi(c)tiers] 
ROUEN  F1: Roan  C, A, Y, K, RY (H5) 
H5, 1H6  Var '03: Rouen  G, N, R, P, Al, NC, S, NA, M, Kö 
SEACOAL  Q: Sea-cole  ___ 
ADO 3.3.10,12  F1: Sea-coale  ___ 
3.5.52  F4: Seacole  G, N, A, P, M 
Rowe ii: Seacoale  ___ 
Capell: Seacoal  C, Y, NC, R, K, Al, S, Kö 
OED: 2-8 cole 
SHOETIE  F1: Shootie  A, P, Al, M 
MM 4.3.15  F2: Shooty  G, N, R 
Warburton: Shooter  ___ 
Capell: Shoo-tye  ___ 
Var '73: Shoe-tye  ___ 
Var '03: Shoe-tie  C, NC (1922), Y, RY, NA 
Shoetie  K, NC (1950), S, Kö 
OED: 4-7 shoo 
OED: 7 ty 
TURF  F1: Turph  G, A, N, NC, R, K, Al, S, M, Kö 
SHR Ind.2.92  Pope i: Turf  C, Y, RY 
OED: 6-7 turph