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A Tabular Representation of the Furbank And Owens Canon

For an explanation of the logic of categorization and the analytic rationale of this presentation of the works attributed to Defoe by Furbank and Owens (both definite and "probable"), see section 3, above. Unless otherwise stated, all quotations and details in the table are from the relevant entry in the Critical Bibliography. The numeration is also from that volume; the table begins with item number 3 because numbers 1 and 2 are collections of works (the True Collection and the Second Volume). I have filled in as many columns as possible, but in most cases works are categorized on the basis of the strongest evidence. For example: in the case of items claimed by Defoe, I also list any other contemporary or late-life evidence in attribution noted by Furbank and Owens. Limitations of space require considerable abbreviation, including the shortening of most titles; that information is of course supplied more fully in the Critical Bibliography.

The table includes a number of shorthand references. Several initially anonymous works were reprinted in collections in Defoe’s lifetime with his name attached (column 7, "Reprint").1

TC  Defoe’s A True Collection of the Writings of the True Born English-man (an authorized collection published in 1703). 
SV  Defoe’s A Second Volume of the Writings of the Author of the True-Born Englishman (an authorized collection published in 1705). 
How  A Collection of the Writings of the Author of the True-Born English-Man (an unauthorized collection by John How in 1703); the volume included thirteen works, two of which (11(P) and 40(P)) Defoe did not include in the True Collection. 

Column 8 ("Epithet") lists instances where a work is signed with one of Defoe’s pseudonyms, which take the form of "by the author of [work]." To save space, I give only the title or an abbreviation (i.e., SW for The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters and TBE for The True-Born Englishman). Where I say "Review," then, the item in question is attributed on the title page to "the author of the Review." The tenth and eleventh columns record late attributions, those made in the second half of the century ("Later 18c") or between the beginning of the nineteenth century and the present ("After 18c"). The source of the attribution is given there. I take the assignment of attribution from Furbank and Owens, and except in one case (I have changed "Cibber" to "Cibber/Shiels") I use their shorthand terms.

Chalmers  George Chalmers in his "List of Writings" of Defoe, included in his Life of Daniel De Foe (1790). 
Cibber/Shiels  Robert Shiels in "Cibber’s" The Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland, 5 vols. (1753); the entry on Defoe is in vol. 4 (pp. 313–325). 


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Crossley  James Crossley in his MS list of 60 "Defoe" works; the list was made between 1869 and 1883 and is reprinted in Furbank and Owens, Canonisation
Lee  William Lee in Daniel Defoe: His Life, and Recently Discovered Writings, 3 vols. (1869). 
Stace  Machell Stace in An Alphabetical Catalogue of an Extensive Collection of the Writings of Daniel De Foe (1829). 
Trent (Biblio)  William Peterfield Trent in an unpublished bibliography (on which he worked until his death in 1927). 
Trent (CHEL)  Trent in the list of works included in his chapter on Defoe in the Cambridge History of English Literature, ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller, 14 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912), vol. 9. 
Trent (Nation Trent in his "Bibliographical Notes on Defoe, I-III," in the New York Nation 84 (June 1907): 515–518, and 85 (July and August 1907): 29–32 180–183. 
Wilson   Walter Wilson in his Memoirs of the Life and Times of Daniel De Foe, 3 vols. (1830). 


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Author's name  Time of attribution 
F&O #  Title  Evidence  Date  Imprint  Early ed.  Reprint  Epithet  Lifetime  Later 18c  After 18c  Other evidence 
Books, Pamphlets, and Broadsheets  
3(P)  A Letter to a Dissenter from his Friend at the Hague   deduced-context  [1688]  false imprint  Moore   probable ref. in Review; ref. in 171 
A New Discovery of an Old Intreague   claimed by D  1691  SV (1705) 
An Essay upon Projects   signed  1697  R. R. for Tho. Cockerill  preface: D.E 
The Character of the Late Dr. Samuel Annesley   claimed by D  1697  E. Whitlock   preface: D.F.  TC (1703)  Dunton, 17052 
Some Reflections on ... An Argument Shewing that a Standing Army is Inconsistent with a Free Government   signed  1697  E. Whitlock   2nd ed. preface: D.F. 
An Argument Shewing, that a Standing Army ... is not Inconsistent...  claimed by D  1698  E. Whitlock   TC (1703) 
An Enquiry into the Occasional Conformity of Dissenters   claimed by D  1697 [1698]  2nd ed. preface: D.F.  TC (1703) 
10  The Poor Man's Plea   claimed by D  1698  2nd ed. preface: D.F.  TC (1703) 
11(P)  Lex Talionis   contemporary attribution  1698  How 3 (1703)  Pittis (?), 17044  discussion analogous to 62; description like 228 
12(P)  A Brief Reply to the History of Standing Armies in England   deduced-content  1698  Trent (CHEL cites 8; quotes line from 4; favorite Dryden quotation 
13(P)  An Encomium upon a Parliament   deduced-context  [1699]  Ellis 5   quoted in Review;6 similar style to 56; consonant with thinking in 8 and 10 
14  The Pacificator   claimed by D  1700  J. Nutt   SV (1705) 
15  The Two Great Questions Consider'd   claimed by D  1700  R. T. for A. Baldwin  TC (1703) 
16  The Two Great Questions Further Considered   claimed by D  1700  TC (1703) 
17  The True-Born Englishman   claimed by D  1700 [1701?]  TC (1703)  several7 
18  The Six Distinguishing Characters of a Parliament-Man   claimed by D  1701  TC (1703) 
19  The Danger of the Protestant Religion Consider'd   claimed by D  1701  TC (1703) 
20  The Free-Holders Plea against Stock-Jobbing ...   claimed by D  1701  TC (1703)  lengthy excerpts in 202(P) 
21  A Letter to Mr. How   claimed by D  1701  TC (1703) 
22(P)  The Livery Man's Reasons   deduced-content  1701  TC (1703)  Trent (Biblio reflects known hostility and present concerns; quotes couplet from 17 
23  The Villainy of Stock-Jobbers Detected   claimed by D  1701  TC (1703) 
24  The Succession to the Crown of England, Considered   contemporary attribution  1701  17018 
25  [Legion's Memorial]   contemporary attribution  [1701 ]  several9 
26(P)  [Υe True-Born Englishmen Proceed]   contemporary attribution  [1701]  170310  Stace  thematically consonant with 25; similar style to 56 
27  The History of the Kentish Petition   contemporary attribution  1701  several11  Stace  four lines used in Review; two lines used in 81 
28  The Present State of Jacobitism Considered   signed  1701  A. Baldwin   preface: D.F.  Ralph, 1744–4612 
29  Reasons against a War with France   claimed by D  1701  TC (1703) 
30(P)  Legion's Mew Paper 13   deduced-context  1702 [1701]  connection to 25 
31  The Original Power of the ... People of England   claimed by D  1702 [1701]  preface: D.F.  TC (1703)  171014  repr. at the end of 1790 ed. of 201 
32  The Mock Mourners   claimed by D  1702  TC (1703)  TBE 
33  A New Test of the Church of England's Loyalty   claimed by D  1702  TC (1703) 
34  Reformation of Manners   claimed by D  1702  TC (1703) 
35  An Enquiry into Occasional Conformity   claimed by D  1702  TC (1703)  1704: TBE15 
36(P)  The Opinion of a Known Dissenter on the Bill for Preventing Occasional Conformity   deduced-content  1703 [1702?]  J. Nutt   Moore   arguments similar to other works; repeats phrase and passages from 35; repeats phrase from 9 
37  The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters   claimed by D  1702  TC (1703)  repr.: TBE  several16  D arrested 
38  The Spanish Descent   claimed by D  1702  TC (1703)  TBE 
39  A Brief Explanation of ... The Shortest Way with the Dissenters   claimed by D  [1703]  TC (1703)  repr. with 37 
40(P)  A Dialogue between a Dissenter and the Observator   contemporary attribution  1703  How17 (1703)  Moore   clever "strategies on Defoe's personal behalf" 
41  More Reformation18   claimed by D  1703  SV (1705)  TBE 
42  The Shortest Way to Peace and Union   claimed by D  1703  TC (1703)  SW; TBE 
43  A Hymn to the Pillory   claimed by D  1703  SV (1705)  Thomas Brown, 170319 
44(P)  The Sincerity of the Dissenters Vindicated   late attribution  1703  Chalmers20  consonant with D's arguments and polemical tendencies 
45(P)  A Hymn to the Funeral Sermon   contemporary attribution  [1703]  170321  Moore   in style of 43 
46  An Enquiry into the Case of Mr. Asgil's General Translation   signed  1704 [1703]  Nutt   preface: D.F.22  TBE 
47  A Challenge of Peace, Address'd to the Whole Nation   claimed by D  1703  SV (1705) 
48(F)  Some Remarks on the First Chapter in Dr. Davenant's Essays   deduced-content  1704 [1703]  A. Baldwin   Wilson   similar to 31, which is quoted at length and by same author 
49  Peace without Union   claimed by D  1703  4th ed. preface: De Foe  SV (1705) 
50  The Dissenters Answer to the High-Church Challenge   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705) 
51(P)  An Essay on the Regulation of the Press   deduced-context  1704  Chalmers  D acknowledges "several Tracts" on the subject; arguments similar to Review 
52  A Serious Inquiry into this Grand Question   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705) 
53(P)  The Lay-Man's Sermon upon the Late Storm   deduced-content  1704  Wilson   remark on a theme D is preoccupied with; favorite allusion 
54  Royal Religion   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705) 
55  To the Honourable, the C[ommon]s of England   deduced-context  [1704]  pub. privately  Downie23 
56  The Address   contemporary attribution  1704  1703–424  first line quoted in 60 
57  More Short-Ways with the Dissenters   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705) 
58  A New Test of the Church of England's Honesty   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705)  1705: TBE 
59(P)  The Storm: or, a Collection of the ... Late Dreadful Tempest  late attribution  1704  J. Nutt for G. Sawbridge  Chalmers  quotes four lines of verse from 60 
60  An Elegy on the Author of the True-Born-English-Man   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705)  Hymn to Pillory  ten lines quoted in Review 
61  A Hymn to Victory   claimed by D  1704  J. Nutt   dedication signed  SV (1705)  1704: TBE 
62  Giving Alms no Charity   claimed by D  1704  SV (1705) 
63  Queries upon the Bill against Occasional Conformity   contemporary attribution  [1704]  170525  Trent (CHEL
64  The Dissenter Misrepresented and Represented   claimed by D  [1704?]26  SV (1705) 
65  The Double Welcome   claimed by D  1705  B. Bragg   SV (1705) 
66  The Consolidator   signed  1705  Benj. Bragg   TBE  frequent use of lunar fantasy in the Review 
67  The Experiment: or, The Short est Way with the Dissenters Exemplified   claimed by D  1705  B. Bragg   several27  claimed in Review 
68  Advice to All Parties   signed  1705  Benj. Bragg   TBE  Chalmers 
69  The Dyet of Poland   claimed by D  1705  preface allusion  Chalmers  claimed in Letters (P.19) 
70  The Paralel [sic]  claimed by D  1705  Dublin   SV (1705) 
71  The High-Church Legion 28   claimed by D  1705  170529  Chalmers  probable reference in Letters (p.93); see note to 101(P) 
72(P)  A Hint to the Blackwell-Hall Factors   deduced-content  1705  Moore   "Defoesque character"; a favorite allusion30 
73(P)  Party-Tyranny   deduced-context  1705 [1706?]  Wilson   discussion of "Party-Tyranny" in Review; adaptation of lines of 17; favorite sentiment 
74  A Hymn to Peace   signed  1706  John Nutt   TBE  Chalmers 
75  A Reply to ... L[or]d H[aversham]’s Vindication of his Speech   signed  1706  Review  Chalmers 
76  Remarks on the Letter to the Author of the State-Memorial   deduced-context  1706  Trent (Nation probable reference in Letters (p. 115); favorite Butler quotation31 
77  Remarks on the Bill to Prevent Frauds Committed by Bankrupts   contemporary attribution  1706  170632  Wilson   thematically similar to Review; refers to author's part in promoting bill acknowledged in Review 
78  An Essay at Removing National Prejudices against a Union, pt. I  claimed by D  1706  acknowledged in Review 
79  An Essay at Removing National Prejudices against a Union, pt. II  claimed by D  1706  acknowledged in Review 
80(P)  A True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs. Veal33   late attribution  1706  B. Bragg   Chalmers 
81  Jure Divino   claimed by D  1706  TBE  several34  discussed in Review 
82  An Essay, at Removing National Prejudices, pt. III  claimed by D  1706  [Edinb.]  the two first parts  acknowledged in Review 
83  A Fourth Essay, at Removing National Prejudices   claimed by D  1706  [Edinb.]  acknowledged in Review 
84  The Vision, A Poem   claimed by D  [1706]  [Edinb.]  170635  Trent (CHEL holograph exists; implicitly claimed in a letter36 
85  Observations on the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Union   deduced-context  [1706]  [Edinb.]  Wodrow37  probable reference in a letter38 
86  A Reply to the Scots Answer, to the British Vision   deduced-context  [1706]  [Edinb.]  Trent(CHEL vague reference in Letters (p. 162) 
87  Caledonia, &c signed  1706  Edinb.  dedication signed  1707 London repr. advert, in Review 
88  A Short Letter to the Glasgow-Men   claimed by D  [1706]  [Edinb.]  unambiguously claimed in a letter39 
89(P)  An Enquiry into the Disposal of the Equivalent   contemporary attribution  [1706?]  [Edinb.]  Wodrow40  Trent (CHEL passage and remarks similar to Review 
90  A Fifth Essay, at Removing National Prejudices   claimed by D  1707  [Edinb.]  acknowledged in Review 
91  Two Great Questions Considered ... a Sixth Essay at Removing National Prejudices   deduced-context  1707  [Edinb.]  vague reference in a letter41 
92  The Dissenters in England Vindicated   deduced-context  [1707]  [Edinb.]  Chalmers  self-exposure in a related pamphlet?; apparently claimed in a letter42 
93  Passion and Prejudice   deduced-context  1707  Edinb.  Moore  quotes letters signed "D.E"; see note to 92 
94  A Short View of the ... Protestant Religion in Britain   deduced-context  1707  Edinb.  Toland, 171743  Chalmers  see note to 92 
95  A Voice from the South   deduced-context  [1707]  [Edinb.]  repr. in Review 
96(P)  An Historical Account of the Bitter Sufferings ... of the Episcopal Church in Scotland   deduced-context  1707  Edinb.  Wodrow, 1711?44  Chalmers (supposed)  argumentation "strongly suggests" D 
97  Dyers News Examined as to his ... Memorial against the Review   deduced-context  [1707]  [Edinb.]  Trent (CHEL paragraphs repr. in Review 
98  De Foe’s Answers, to Dyer’s Scandalous News Letter   signed  [1707]  [Edinb.]  in title  Lee 
99(P)  Reflections on the Prohibition Act   deduced-content  1708  Crossley  arguments similar to those in Review and 254 
100(P)  An Answer to a Paper Concerning Mr. De Foe   contemporary attribution  1708  Edinb.  170945  Wilson 
101(P)  A Memorial to the Nobility of Scotland   deduced-context  1708  Edinb.  Moore  probable reference in a letter46 
102  The Scot’s Narrative Examin’d   contemporary attribution  1709  I70947  Wilson  arguments similar to Review 
103(P)  A Letter to Mr. Bisset   deduced-content  1709  J. Baker   Moore  typical of D’s polemical strategies; favorite allusion 
104  The History of the Union of Great Britain   claimed by D  1709 [1710?]  Edinb.  171248  referred to in Review as in progress 
105  Advertisement from Daniel De Foe, to Mr. Clark   signed  [1710]  [Edinb.]  in title  signed "D.F." 
106(P)  A Letter from Captain Tom to the Mobb   deduced-content  1710  J. Baker   Wilson: not improbable  close to D's "attitude towards the 'Mob' in the Review at this time" 
107(P)  Greenshields out of Prison and Toleration Settled in Scotland   deduced-content  1710  N. Cliff   Trent (Biblio similar approach to that in the Review and in 102 
108  An Essay upon Publick Credit   claimed by D  1710  Chalmers (supposed)  claimed in a letter49 
109(P)  Counter Queries   deduced-content  [1710]  Healey  "reminiscent of" a letter (Letters, p. 286) 
110  An Essay upon Loans   claimed by D  1710  Wilson  named in a letter50 
111(P)  A Word against a New Election   deduced-content  1710  Chalmers (supposed)  echoes passage from Letters (p. 266); favorite allusion 
112(P)  A New Test of the Sence of the Nation   deduced-content  1710  Chalmers (supposed)  Wilson   two passages similar to Review 
113(P)  Queries to the New Hereditary Right-Men   deduced-content  1710  Moore  similar discussion in Review; praises a work (not by D) here and in Review 
114(P)  A Letter to the Whigs   deduced-content  1711  Trent (CHEL pp. 7–16 "more or less identical with" 115(P); probably by same author 
115(P)  A Spectators Address to the Whigs   deduced-content  1711  Trent (Nation see 114(P); reflections similar to Review; favorite Butler quotation 
116(P)  Captain Tom’s Remembrance to his Old Friends the Mobb   deduced-content  [1711]  Halkett and Laing51  consonant with D's thinking in Review, but not as consonant as 106(P)52 
117(P)  The Secret History of the October Club   contemporary attribution53  1711  Pittis, 171154  Lee  several close similarities to Review 
118(P)  The British Visions: or, Isaac Bickerstaff, Sen. Being Twelve Prophecies ...   deduced-context  1711  J. Baker   Trent (CHEL D knowledgeable and corresponding about it55 
119(P)  The Succession of Spain Consider’d  deduced-content  1711  J. Baker   Trent (CHEL makes claim made on other occasions; remark and analysis similar to Review 
120(P)  A Seasonable Caution to the General Assembly   contemporary attribution  1711  [Edinb.?]  Wodrow56  Trent (Biblio thematically consonant with Review; probable reference in letter57 
121(P)  Eleven Opinions about Mr. H[arle]y   deduced-content  1711  J. Baker   Wilson   "one or two" favorite allusions; consonant with D’s thinking 
122(P)  Atalantis Major   deduced-context  1711  false imprint  Lee  ambiguous reference in a letter;58 consonant with D’s thinking 
123(P)  An Essay upon the Trade to Africa   deduced-content  1711  Crossley  arguments also in Review; biographical evidence59 
124(P)  The Secret History of the October-Club, pt. II  deduced-context  1711  J. Baker   continues 117 (P); favorite allusion; known pre-occupations; advert, in Review 
125(P)  The Representation Examined   deduced-context  1711  A. Baldwin   Moore  discusses "Representation" in Review; consonant with D’s thinking; advert, in Review 
126  An Essay on the South-Sea Trade   signed  1712 [1711]  J. Baker   Review 
127(P)  The True State of the Case between the Government and the Creditors of the Navy   deduced-content  1711  J. Baker   Crossley  arguments close to 126; approach similar to Review 
128(P)  Reasons why this Nation Ought to Put a Speedy End to this ... War   deduced-content  1711  J. Baker   several close resemblances to and echoes of Review60 
129  An Essay at a Plain Exposition of that... Phrase A Good Peace   claimed by D  1711  J. Baker   Review  claimed in Review 
130  The Felonious Treaty   signed  1711  J. Baker   Review 
131(P)  An Essay on the History of Parties   deduced-content  1711  J. Baker   Wilson  several suggestive pieces of internal evidence61 
132(P)  [A Speech of a Stone Chimney-Piece deduced-context  [1711]  not pub.  Moore  extract pub. in Review; fuller version in 139(P); possible reference in Review 
133(P)  The Conduct of Parties in England   deduced-content  1712  Wilson  line of argument similar to and echoes from Review 
134(P)  The Case of the Poor Skippers and Keel-Men of Newcastle   claimed by D  [1712?]  Moore  current preoccupation; D offers to write this in a letter62 
135(P)  A Farther Case Relating to the Poor Keel-men of Newcastle   deduced-context  [1712?]  Moore  see 134(P) 
136(P)  Imperial Gratitude  deduced-content  1712  Moore  close parallels and "Verbally similar discussion" in Review 
137(P)  The Highland Visions   deduced-context  1712  J. Baker   Trent (CHEL accepted if 118(P) is 
138(P)  Wise as Serpents   deduced-content  1712  J. Baker   Crossley  favorite allusion; similar to Review; likely by same author as 139(P) 
139(P)  The Present State of the Parties in Great Britain 63   deduced-content  1712  J. Baker   Wilson  features D's own career and works; verbatim extract from 104 
140(P)  Reasons against Fighting 64   deduced-context  1712  Lee  probable reference in a letter;65 favorite allusion; phrase used in Review 
141(P)  A Further Search into the Conduct of the Allies   deduced-context  1712  John Morphew   Crossley  probable reference in a letter; see note for 140(P) 
142(P)  The Validity of the Renunciations of Former Powers   deduced-content  1712  J. Morphew   Trent (Nation consonant with D’s thinking; favorite allusion; favorite topic 
143(P)  An Enquiry into the Danger ... of a War with the Dutch   deduced-content  1712  J. Baker   Trent (CHEL consonant with D’s views and style; approval of Review; see note for 140(P) 
144  A Seasonable Warning... against the Insinuations of Papists and Jacobites   claimed by D  1712  J. Baker   Chalmers  claimed in Appeal to Honour and Justice 
145(P)  A Brief Account of the Present State of the African Trade   deduced-content  1713  J. Baker   Crossley  consonant with argument in Review 
146  Reasons against the Succession of the House of Hanover   claimed by D  1713  J. Baker   D prosecuted; acknowledged authorship 
147(P)  The Second-Sighted Highlander: or, Predictions and Foretold Events   deduced-context  [1713]  J. Baker   Trent (CHEL possibly claimed in the Review; successor to 118(P) and 137(P) 
148  And What if the Pretender should come?   claimed by D  1713  J. Baker   D prosecuted 
149  An Answer to a Question that No Body thinks of, viz. But what if the Queen should die?   claimed by D  1713  J. Baker   D prosecuted 
150(P)  An Essay on the Treaty of Commerce with France   deduced-content  1713  J. Baker   Wilson  "general thrust" of arguments like Review 
151(P)  Union and No Union   contemporary attribution  1713  John Baker   Wodrow66  Crossley  deals with D’s concerns at the time; "Defoe-like quality" 
152(P)  Considerations upon the Eighth and Ninth Articles of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation   deduced-content  1713  J. Baker   Lee  consonant with Mercator and with proposal in Letters (p. 420) 
153(P)  A View of the Real Dangers of the Succession   deduced-content  1713  J. Baker   Lee  similar to 3 remarks in Review 
154(P)  A General History of Trade   late attribution  1713  J. Baker   Chalmers  many echoes of D’s works; anecdote and discussion similar to Review 
155(P)  Memoirs of Count Tariff   deduced-context  1713  John Morphew   Trent (Nation grand praise and lengthy quotation in Mercator;67 favorite allusion 
156(P)  Reasons Concerning the Immediate Demolishing of Dunkirk   deduced-content  1713  John Morphew   Trent (Biblio argument similar to Mercator; reference close to one in Review68 
157  Some Thoughts upon the Subject of Commerce with France   signed  1713  J. Baker   Review 
158  A Letter to the Dissenters   claimed by D  1713  John Morphew   Old-mixon,171469  Wilson: tentative  claimed by name in a letter70 
159(P)  A Letter to the Whigs, Expostulating with them upon their Present Conduct   deduced-content  E. Smith   Crossley  "closeness in drift" to letters to Harley at same time; "striking verbal echo" of a letter 
160(P)  The Scots Nation and Union Vindicated   deduced-content  1714  J. Baker for A. Bell  Lee  Defoean style; favorite allusion; refers to same MS here and in Review 
161  Reasons for Im[peaching] the L[or]d H[igh] T[reasure]r71   contemporary attribution  [1714]  J. Moore   Dunton, 171472  Lee 
162(P)  A Brief Survey of the Legal Liberties of the Dissenters   deduced-content  1714  J. Baker   Crossley  wordplay similar to 1706 discussion in Review; favorite allusion 
163(P)  The Weakest Go to the Wall   deduced-context  1714  J. Baker   Trent (CHEL possible reference in Letters (p. 441); parallels to works and letters; favorite allusion 
164(P)  Advice to the People of Great Britain   contemporary attribution  1714  J. Baker   Boyer, 171773  Lee  corresponds closely with D’s views; see note to 161 
165  The Secret History of the White-Staff   contemporary attribution  1714  J. Baker   several74  probable reference in Letters;75 see note to 161 
166  The Secret History of the White Staff, pt. II  deduced-context  1714  J. Baker   continuation of 165 
167  The Secret History of the Secret History of the White Staff   contemporary attribution  1715  S. Keimer   Pittis (?), 171576  Trent (Nation claims (as in Appeal) that he did not write 165 but made amendments77 
168  The Secret History of the White Staff, pt. Ill  deduced-context  1715  J. Baker   a continuation of 165 
169  The Family Instructor   contemporary attribution  1715  Eman. Matthews and Jo. Button  171878  Cibber/Shiels  Button a friend of D’s 
170  A Friendly Epistle by way of Reproof   contemporary attribution  1715  S. Keimer   Gildon, 171979  Wilson   see note to 161 
171  An Appeal to Honour and Justice   claimed by D  1715  J. Baker   TP: Daniel De Foe  Chalmers  clearly autobiographical 
172  A Sharp Rebuke from one of the People called Quakers   contemporary attribution  1715  S. Keimer   Gildon, 1719  Wilson   same charges against Sacheverell as made elsewhere 
173(P)  The Second-Sighted Highlander   deduced-context  1715  J. Baker   Crossley  related to 118(P), 137(P). 147(P) 
174  A Seasonable Expostulation with ... James Butler   contemporary attribution  1715  S. Keimer   Gildon, 1719  Wilson  
175(P)  An Account of the Conduct of Robert Earl of Oxford  contemporary attribution  1715  Boyer, 171780  Trent (Nation quotation identical to Review; reference similar to Review; see note to 161 
176(P)  A Hymn to the Mob   deduced-context  1715  S. Popping, J. Fox, et al.  Wilson   wants to write a "Hymn to the Rabble"; similar style to 43; echoes of other works 
177(P)  A View of the Present Management of the Court of France   deduced-content  1715  J. Baker   Trent (Biblio favorite saying; highly distinctive discussion81 
178(P)  An Account of the Great and Generous Actions of James Butler   deduced-content  [1715]  J. Moore   Lee  favorite allusion; favorite remark 
179(P)  A View of the Scots Rebellion   deduced-content  1715  R. Burleigh   Lee  similar description and one instance of similar phrasing to Review 
180  A Trumpet Blown in the North   deduced-content  1716 [1715]  S. Keimer   Lee  Keimer "connects it with the 'Quaker's' previous writings"; favorite story 
181(P)  Some Thoughts of an Honest Tory in the Country   deduced-content  1716  R. Burleigh   Trent (Nation two favorite allusions, one of them used in 81 and often in Review 
182(P)  Some Considerations on a Law for Triennial Parliaments   deduced-context  1716  J. Baker, T. Warner  Crossley82  D claims to have written a tract of this sort; favorite allusion83 
183(P)  An Essay upon Buying and Selling of Speeches   deduced-content  1716  J. Baker, T. Warner  Trent (Nation reflects known hostility; favorite allusion; Marvell quotation also in Review 
184(P)  The Layman’s Vindication of the Church of England  deduced-content  1716  J. Baker for A. and W. Bell  Trent (CHEL wordplay parallel to 228; consonant with D’s thinking 
185  Secret Memoirs of a Treasonable Conference at S— House   contemporary attribution  1717 [1716]  J. More   Boyer, 171784  Trent (Nation)85  description similar to 69; remark about Harley used frequently byD 
186(P)  The Danger of Court Differences  deduced-content  1717  J. Baker, T. Warner  Crossley  variant on Dryden line;86 phrase used elsewhere; an axiom paralleled in Review 
187(P)  The Quarrel of the School-Boys at Athens   deduced-context  1717  J. Roberts   Trent (CHEL praised in Mercurius Politicus; MP quotes extra verses; remark recalls 185 
188(P)  An Argument Proving that the Design of Employing and En[n]obling Foreigners ...87  contemporary attribution  1717  Boyer, 171788  Trent (Nation
189  Fair Payment No Spunge   contemporary attribution  1717  J. Brotherton, W. Meddows, J. Roberts  171789  Crossley90  favorite maxim; praised in Mercurius Politicus 
190(P)  What if the Swedes should Come?   deduced-content  1717  J. Roberts   Wilson   several different kinds of internal evidence91 
191(P)  The Question Fairly Stated, whether Now is not the Time to do Justice to the Friends of the Government ...   contemporary attribution  1717  J. Roberts, J. Harrison, A. Dodd  171792  Crossley  reproduces "some dozen paragraphs" from 70 without acknowledgment; favorite simile; favorite allusion 
192(P)  Memoirs of the Church of Scotland  deduced-content  1717  Eman. Matthews and T. Warner  Wodrow93  Stace  consonant with D’s thinking; advert, in 204 
193(P)  A Farther Argument against Ennobling Foreigners   deduced-context  1717  E. Moore   complains that 188(P) has been wrongly attrib. to D;94 epigraph adapted from 20(P); see note to 188(P) 
194  Minutes of the Negotiations of Monsr. Mesnager   contemporary attribution  l7l7  S. Baker   Oldmixon (1732)95  Wilson 96   reference to 128(F);97 see note to 161 
195  A Declaration of Truth to Benjamin Hoadly   contemporary attribution  1717  E. More   Gildon, 171998  Wilson 
196(P)  The Conduct of Christians made the Sport of Infidels   deduced-context  l7l7  S. Baker   Trent (CHEL praised in Mercurius Politicus; two favorite themes; reference also in 209 
197(P)  The Old Whig and Modern Whig Revived   deduced-content  l7l7  S. Baker   Trent (CHEL consonant with D’s thinking and style; two favorite verse quotations 
198(P)  A Continuation of Letters written by a Turkish Spy at Paris   deduced-content  1718  W. Taylor   Crossley  parallels to D works; favorite allusion; story and quote also in 210; quote also in 201 
199  The Family Instructor, vol. II   deduced-context  1718  Eman. Matthews   continuation of 169 
200(P)  A Friendly Rebuke to one Parson Benjamin   deduced-content  1719  E. Moore   Lee  similar to 195; consonant with D’s thinking; favorite quotation 
201  The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe  contemporary attribution  1719  W. Taylor   Gildon, 171999 
202(P)  The Anatomy of Exchange-Alley   deduced-content  1719  E. Smith   Lee  several suggestive pieces of internal evidence100 
203(P)  The Just Complaint of the Poor Weavers truly Represented   deduced-content  1719  W. Boreham   Crossley  similar style and approach to 254; favorite anecdote 
204  The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe   contemporary attribution  1719  W. Taylor   Gildon, 1719 101  Chalmers  "sequel" to 201; often pub. with it 
205  A Brief State of the Question, between the Printed and Painted Callicoes   deduced-context  1719  W. Boreham   Lee  author of 254 links it with this work; intro repr. in Mercurius Politicus; lengthy quotes in MP 
206(P)  The Chimera: or, the French way of Paying National Debts, laid open   deduced-content  1720 [1719]  T. Warner   Lee  favorite saying; favorite conceit; possible lifetime attribution102 
207(P)  The Trade to India Critically and Calmly Consider’d   deduced-content  1720  W. Boreham   Crossley  arguments similar to 254; quotation from 205 
208(P)  Memoirs of a Cavalier   late attribution  [1720]  W. Taylor, T. Warner, et al.  Noble, 1784  Wilson  reference similar to Review; Defoean plan; claimed to possess relevant document103 
209  The Life, Adventures, and Pyracies, of the Famous Captain Singleton   late attribution  1720  J. Brotherton, T. Warner, et al.  1767104  extant copy with "emendations in a hand closely resembling" D’s105 
210  Serious Reflections during the Life ... of Robinson Crusoe   deduced-context  1720  W. Taylor   Chalmers  "sequel" to 201 
211(P)  Brief Observations on Trade and Manufactures   deduced-content  1721  Trent (CHEL D made similar arguments to Harley; favorite allusion; remark consonant with 233 
212(P)  The Case of Mr Law, Truly Stated   deduced-content  1721  A. Moore   Trent (Biblio verse quotation also in Review in 1705106 
213  The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders  late attribution  1721 [1722]  W. Chetwood, T. Edling  Noble, 1776 
214(P)  Due Preparations for the Plague   deduced-content  1722  E. Matthews, J. Batley  Crossley107  style and theme similar to 216; favorite allusion 
215  Religious Courtship   late attribution  1722  E. Matthews, W. Meadows, et al.  Cibber/ Shiels  style and approach very close to 169 
216  A Journal of the Plague year   late attribution  1722  E. Nutt, J. Roberts, et al.  Cibber/xsShiels 
217  The History and Remarkable Life of ... Col. Jacque   contemporary attribution  1723 [1722]  J. Brotherton, T. Payne, et al.  4th ed. (1738) 
218  The Fortunate Mistress: or, a History of the Fortunes of... Lady Roxana   late attribution  1724  T. Warner, W. Meadows, et al.  Noble, 1775 
219  The Great Law of Subordination Consider’d   contemporary attribution  1724  S. Harding, W. Lewis, et al.  1725108  Chalmers  couplet adapted from 17; favorite anecdote and saying 
220  A Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain 109   late attribution  1724  G. Strahan, W. Mears, et al.  "7th ed." (1769) 
221  A New Voyage Round the World   late attribution  1725 [1724]  A. Bettesworth, W. Mearsxs  1786–87110 
222  Every-Body’s Business, is No-Body’s Business   signed  1725  T. Warner, A. Dodd, E. Nutt  Moreton111  Chalmers (supposed) 
223  A Tour thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain, vol. II   deduced-context  1725  G. Strahan, W. Mears, et al.  continuation of 220 
224  The Complete English Tradesman   contemporary attribution  1726 [1725]  Charles Rivington   1738 ed.; Cibber/Shiels 
225(P)  A General History of Discoveries and Improvements   deduced-content  [1725-6]  J. Roberts   Crossley  consonant with other works; quote used here and in 210; proposal akin to one in a letter 
226(P)  A Brief Case of the Distillers  deduced-content  1726  T. Warner   Crossley  two close parallels in Review 
227  An Essay upon Literature   late attribution  1726  Tho. Bowles, John Clark, John Bowles  I759?112  Wilson   passage similar to 233; one favorite saying 
228  The Political History of the Devil   late attribution  1726  T. Warner   Gibber/ Shiels  "abounds in favourite allusions and quotations," including from 17 and 81 
229(P)  Mere Mature Delineated   deduced-content  1726  T. Warner   Wilson   several suggestive pieces of internal evidence113 
230  A Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain, vol. III   deduced-context  1727 [1726]  G. Strahan, W. Mears, J. Stagg  continuation of 220 
231  A Supplement to the Complete English Tradesman   deduced-context  1727 [1726]  Charles Rivington   supplement to 224 
232  The Protestant Monastery 114   signed  1727 [1726]  W. Meadows, J. Roberts, et al.  Moreton   Chalmers (supposed) 
233  A System of Magick   signed  1727 [1726]  J. Roberts   2nd ed.: Moreton  Cibber/ Shiels 
234(P)  The Evident Approach of a War   deduced-content  1727  J. Roberts, A. Dodd  Lee  one favorite allusion; one passage similar to Review; author refers to 236(P) 
235(P)  Conjugal Lewdness  late attribution  1727  T. Warner   Chalmers  several significant parallels; two favorite quotations; favorite saying 
236(P)  The Evident Advantages to Great Britain and its Allies from the Approaching War  deduced-content115  1727  J. Roberts, A. Dodd  Crossley  continuation of 234(P) by the same author; suggestion parallel to Review 
237(P)  A Brief Deduction of the ... British Woollen Manufacture   deduced-content  1727  J. Roberts, A. Dodd  Crossley  account closely connects to that given in the Review 
238  An Essay on the History and Reality of Apparitions   signed  1727  J. Roberts   1729 repr.: Moreton  Cibber/Shiels  see note to 222 
239  The Compleat English Tradesman, vol. II  deduced-context  1727  Charles Rivington   continuation of 224 
240  A New Family Instructor   signed  1727  T. Warner   Family Instructor  related to 169 
241  Parochial Tyranny   signed  [1727]  J. Roberts   Moreton  Chalmers (supposed)  see note to 222 
242 (P)  Some Considerations on the Reasonableness and Necessity of Encreasing ... the Seamen ...   deduced-context  1728  J. Roberts   Crossley  similar to argument in Review (1705) and to 1705 proposal made to the House of Lords 116 
243  Augusta Triumphans   signed  1728  for J. Roberts; by E. Nutt et al.  2nd ed.: Moreton  Chalmers (supposed)  see note to 222 
244  A Plan of the English Commerce   contemporary attribution  1728  Charles Rivington   1737 ed.; Cibber/Shiels 
245  Second Thoughts are Best   signed  1729 [1728]  for W. Meadows; by J. Roberts  Moreton  Chalmers (supposed)  expands on 243 (opening pages almost verbatim); see note to 222 
246  An Humble Proposal to the People of England, for the Encrease of their Trade   signed  1729  Charles Rivington   Compleat Tradesman  connected to 244 
247 (P)  The Advantages of Peace and Commerce   deduced-content  1729  for J. Brotherton and Tho. Cox; by A. Dodd  Crossley  various favorite themes; one favorite saying 
248(P)  Some Objections Humbly Offered ... relating to the ... Relief of Prisoners   deduced-content  1729  R. Walker, E. Nutt  Crossley  one argument similar to Review (of 1707 and 1709); passage similar to 224117 
249(P)  A Brief State of the Inland or Home Trade, of England   deduced-content  1730  Tho. Warner   Crossley  several passages similar to 224; one favorite saying 
250  The Review 118   claimed by D  Feb 1704-June 1713  several119  claimed by D120 
250a  An Answer to the L[or]d H[aver]-sham’s Speech   claimed by D  1705  TP: Daniel D’Foe  repr. from Review 
250b  An Essay on the Great Battle at Ramellies   claimed by D  [1706]  repr. from Review 
250c  A Sermon Preach’d by Mr. Daniel Defoe   claimed by D  1706  title  repr. from Review 
250d  Daniel Defoe’s Hymn for the Thanksgiving   claimed by D  1706  title  repr. from Review 
250e  The Trade of Britain Stated   claimed by D  [1707]  [Edinb.]  repr. from Review 
250f  One of Mr. Foe’s Weekly Reviews   claimed by D  [1707]  [Edinb.?]  title  repr. from Review 
250g  New Fashion’d Advice about Choosing a Parliament ... taken out of Daniel De Foe’s Reviews   claimed by D  1708  Edinb.  title  repr. from Review 
250h  Scotland in Danger   claimed by D  1708  Edinb.  repr. from Review; see note to 101 (P) 
250i  A Commendatory Sermon Preach’d November the 4th, 1709   claimed by D  [1709]  J. Dutton   TP: Daniel de Foe  repr. from Review 
250j  A Vindication of Dr. Henry Sacheverell   claimed by D  [1710]  TP: D. D’F.  repr. from Review 
250k  News from the Moon   claimed by D  [1721]  [Boston]  repr. from Review 
250l  The Banbury Convert: Or, Daniel De Foe’s Address to Her Majesty   claimed by D  1710  J. Baker   title  repr. from Review 
250m  The State of the British Nation   claimed by D  [1711]  Dublin   repr. from Review 
251  The Master Mercury   contemporary attribution  Aug-Sept 1704  Luttrell, 1704121  MS ascription; favorite quotation; "Defoean" theme and style; refers to Review 
252  Mercator   contemporary attribution  May 1713-July 1714  Benj. Tooke, John Barber  Boyer, 1713122  possible claim in a letter; by same author as The Manufacturer (see 254)123 
253(P)  The Monitor   contemporary attribution  Apr-Aug 1714  John Morphew   1714124  Trent (CHEL several suggestive pieces of internal evidence125 
254  The Manufacturer   deduced-context  Oct 1719-Mar 1721  W. Boreham   D commissioned by the London Company of Weavers; by author of 252126 
255(P)  The Commentator   contemporary attribution  Jan-Sep 1720  J. Roberts   1720127  Moore  several suggestive pieces of internal evidence128 
256(P)  The Director   deduced-content  Oct 1720-Jan 1721  for W. Boreham; by A. Dodd  Lee  several favorite quotations and allusions; similar polemical style to Review 
Contributions to Books and Periodicals  
257  To the Athenian Society 129   signed  [1692]  for James Dowley  ode: D.F.  Dunton130 
258  Preface to De Laune’s Plea ... With a Preface by the Author of the Review   signed  1706  William and Joseph Marshall  signed D. Foe  advert, in Review 
259  Statement in St. James’s Post, repr. in Mercurius Politicus  signed  1717  signed D.F. 
260  Letter in Weekly Journal signed "Sir Andrew Politick"  contemporary attribution  1718  1718131 
261  Letter in Applebee’s Original Weekly Journal signed "Andrew Moreton"  signed  1728  Moreton 
262  Essay in first number of Universal Spectator  contemporary attribution  1728  Henry Baker132 
Translations and Compilations  
263  An Appendix to the Review   deduced-context  1705  includes Review indices; advert, in Review 
264  A Collection of the ... Addresses in ... King James’s Time   deduced-context  [1710]  D seems to promise to write this in the Review 
Works Left in Manuscript  
266  Meditacons   claimed by D  [1681]  MS in D’s hand, signed with his name and initials 
267  Historicall Colleccons   claimed by D  [1682]  MS in D’s hand 
268  Humanum est Errare[:] Mistakes On all Sides   claimed by D  [1704?]  partially in D’s hand133 
269  Par—n Pl—ton of Barwick   contemporary attribution  [1709?]  00000  1709134 
270  The Compleat English Gentleman   claimed by D  [1728–29?]  claimed in Letters (p. 473) 
271  Of Royall Educacion   claimed by D  [1698?-1727?]  included with MS of 270 

A "second edition" of the True Collection appeared in 1705 (including the same items as the first). This Collection and the Second Volume were reissued in two parts as A True Collection ... The Third Edition in 1710, and again in 1711 as the two-volume Collection of the Writings of the Author of the True-Born Englishman. Forty items were reprinted in the two-volume The Genuine Works of Daniel D’Foe, Author of The True-born English-Man ([1721]), perhaps an unauthorized collection (and an expensive one at 12 shillings). All of the items included in these collections were printed either in the original True Collection or in the Second Volume.


The Life and Errors of John Dunton (1705), 240.


The How collection was unauthorized, and Defoe excluded 11 (P) and 40(F) from his True Collection.


The True-Born Hugonot (by William Pittis?), 11.


Poems on Affairs of State: Augustan Satirical Verse, 1660–1714, vol. 6, ed. Frank H. Ellis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970). Ellis says that "The evidence for Defoe's authorship ... lies mainly in his quotation of the poem in" issues of the Review (48).


Four stanzas were also "quoted in Cursory Remarks upon Some Late Disloyal Proceedings in Several Cabals (1699)," a volume not associated with Defoe (CB, 16).


For example, [William Pittis?], The True-Born Hugonot: or, Daniel de Foe (1703).


Animadversions on the Succession to the Crown of England, Consider'd (1701), 1. Also in two 1703 pamphlets (CB, 26).


Furbank and Owens observe that this item was "widely attributed" to Defoe by contemporaries (including Tutchin), though Defoe (almost certainly disingenuously) denied authorship (CB, 27).


This is probably the piece James Drake attributes to "Legion" in The Source of our Present Fears Discover'd (1703), 32.


This pamphlet was "widely attributed" to Defoe, including by Pittis (?) in The True-Born Hugonot, p. 10 (CB, 29).


Ralph, History of England: During the Reigns of K. William, Q. Anne, and K. George I, 2 vols. (1744–46), 2:999.


Reprinted in A Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts, 4 vols. (1748), 3:114–124, attributed to "T.G." (Thomas Gordon?).


Extracts adapted and reprinted in The Modern Addresses Vindicated ... by D. De Foe (1710), which has sometimes been mistakenly attributed to Defoe (CB, 32).


The first edition was attributed to "the Author of the Preface to Mr. Howe."


See for example The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters ... with its Author's Brief Explication Consider'd, his Name Expos'd... and The Fox with his Firebrand Unkennell'd and Insnar'd (both 1703).


See note to 11(P).


"Defoe's authorship is made clear in an 'advertisement' on the verso of the title-page" of the first edition (CB, 41).


19. A Dialogue between the Pillory and Daniel de Foe.


Chalmers found the piece attributed to Defoe in a catalogue by William Collins (CB, 43).


The author of Remarks on the Author of the Hymn to the Pillory assumes that this item was written by Defoe (CB, 43).


Furbank and Owens note that, in addition to the preface being signed "D.F.," one part of item 46 is signed "Daniel de Foe" (CB, 44).


23. "An Unknown Defoe Broadsheet on the Regulation of the Press?", The Library, 5 th ser., 33 (1978): 51–58. Downie explains that an anonymous informer sent this piece to Harley and attributed it to Defoe.


An anonymous writer attributed this poem to "our Legionite" in the preface to The Whig's Scandalous Address Answered Stanza by Stanza (1703). John Dyer's News-Letter in October 1704 implied Defoe's authorship. Furbank and Owens point out, however, that in a 1710 letter, Defoe "reproaches Dyer for having reported him as fled from justice, when in fact he was on a journey, and there was not 'the least Charge Against me for being Concern'd in it' (Letters, p. 269)" (CB, 51–52). Elsewhere, they explain that they "are inclined to think that Defoe was its author, on the (admittedly slender) grounds that the first line from it is quoted in An Elegy on the Author of the True-Born Englishman ... and that Sammen who dispersed it was evidently a friend of Defoe's." See their "New Light on John Pierce, Defoe's Agent in Scotland," Edinburgh Bibliographical Society Transactions 6 (1998): 134–143, at 136.


The author of Stockings out at Heel (1705) attributes this piece to "A Dislocated Hosier" (CB, 58).


"No independently published edition of this work has been found" (CB, 59). The item was first published in SV.


Charles Leslie and others attributed this to Defoe by 1708 (when he openly acknowledged authorship); see CB, 62.


Defoe does not claim this piece by name, but his advertising it in the Review as by the author of The True-Born Englishman provides a tacit admission of authorship.


Advertised in the Review for 7 August 1705 as "by the Author of the True-Born English-Man."


Furbank and Owens also point out that "Defoe later [in 1711] became a vociferous champion for the firm of Brooke and Hellier, when they tried to break into the retail trade in Portugese wine" (CB, 67).


Furbank and Owens refer to another work that includes the same Buder quotation, concluding in that instance that "Although this line is sometimes quoted by Defoe ... there is little reason to think that he was the author" of the work at issue (CB, 64).


Observations on the Bankrupts Bill, a response to "Mr. Daniel De Foe."


Rodney M. Baine quotes a 1734 essay in The Universal Spectator, whose author suggests that the same person was responsible for both this item and An Essay on the History and Reality of Apparitions. "This reference," Baine concludes, "gives us our first evidence that Defoe wrote A True Relation of the Apparition of Mrs. Veal" See Daniel Defoe and the Supernatural (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1968), 93.


Jure Divino Toss'd in a Blanket: or, Daniel De Foe's Memorial (in POAS, 1707) and elsewhere (see CB, 76).


A Second Defence of the Scotish Vision.


See Frank H. Ellis, "Notes for an Edition of Defoe's Verse," The Review of English Studies, n.s., 32 (1981): 398–407. What Defoe says in his 28 November 1706 letter to Harley is "I Gould not Refrain sending you a peice of my Ld Beilhavens Poetry in Answer to the Ballad" (Letters, 162).


Robert Wodrow (1679–1734), an eighteenth-century collector of books and manuscripts, often wrote what he believed to be the author's name on title pages of pieces he acquired; Furbank and Owens do not accept all of the pieces that were first attributed by Wodrow. See Defoe De-Attributions, xv-xvi, and CB, xiv. Because these annotations were made over a period of time, I have not given a precise date of his ascription of the relevant items.


What Defoe writes to Harley is this: "They go to morrow on the 5th Article. They have been Debateing it last sitting, and here is a mighty popular Objection against on Account of their shipping. The Enclosed will Explain it more particularly, which I Wrot at the Desire of the E's of Abercorn, Sutherland, and some Members of the Commons, to prepare them against to morrows Debate" (Letters, 154). That the "Enclosed" is item 85 is highly likely, but the allusion is not as unambiguous as (for example) in the case of 134(P).


On 9 December 1706, Defoe writes to Harley, "I am printing a Single sheet Entituled a Letter to the Glasgow men," and on 12 December he says, "The paper I mentioned in my last About the Glasgow men I send you Enclosed. Tis a plain but Course Expostulation and they Flatter me it has done a great Deal of service here" (Letters, 169, 170).


See note to no. 85.


What Defoe says to Harley (17 January 1707) is this: "Since the papers I lately sent you I have printed here Two Essayes. One I Enclose you here; The Other shall be sent The Next post" (Letters, 194). Furbank and Owens, following Healey, believe the "One" to be item 90, and the "Other" to be item 91.


Pamphlets nos. 92, 93, and 94 are part of a controversy with the Rev. James Webster. Furbank and Owens: "The second of the three pamphlets addressed to Webster makes it plain that the author is, and is known by Webster to be, Defoe" (CB, 84). In a 27 January 1707 letter to Harley, Defoe says, "I sent you the last letter The Attempt of One Webster, a minister, against the Dissenters, I here Send my Answer to him" (Letters, 196).


I have labeled item no. 94 "deduced-context" instead of "contemporary attribution" because in this case the contextual evidence (for which see previous note) is more persuasive than the contemporary attribution. A second edition appeared the same year under the title The Dissenters Vindicated; or, A Short View of the Present State of the Protestant Religion in Britain. Toland attributes The Dissenters Vindicated to Defoe in his Second Part of the State Anatomy (1717), p. 46.


"It seems likely that Robert Wodrow was referring to it in a letter ... of 13 March 1711, where he remarked that 'the foolish plea of persecution' by Episcopal pamphleteers 'is fully answered by ... Defoe' (CB, 87).


45. Just Reprimand to Daniel De Foe, the author (Defoe's target, James Clark) "takes it for granted that [the piece] is by Defoe himself" (CB, 90).


The letter is dated 29 June 1708, and printed in Furbank and Owens, "Defoe as Secret Agent." What Defoe says to Godolphin is this: "Enclosed I send your Ldpp the printed paper I promised (in my Last but one) should Come last post, but Could not be ready; your Ldpp will see by it The steps I am Taking. It would be a most usefull Encouragement to kno' if your Ldpp approves Thi, and My Design of Dispersing it over the wholl Island, in a Method I noted to your Ldpp was formally Done in the Case of the reply to the Memoriall. It is but a short piece, but I am perswaded it may be usefull, and I shall Follow it with Another, and perhaps a Third, to expose the Conjunction of These men with the Enemies of the Government. I have sent this up this post to be printed in England; your Ldpp will perceive I have Disguised the Stile, and I am perswaded no body will so much as guess it is mine" (150). Furbank and Owens suggest that the "reply to the Memoriall" to which Defoe refers is likely to be The High-Church Legion, and the "Another" he anticipates is probably Scotland in Danger, item no. 250h (see notes 37 and 38).


The pamphlet was attributed to "the Author of the Reviews" in the Edinburgh edition of the Review (CB, 92). Also see the note to no. 85 for Wodrow's ascription of it to Defoe.


Advertised in the Review for 11 March 1712 as "by the Author of the Review" (CB, 95).


In a 5 September 1710 letter to Harley, Defoe boasts, "I am Vain of Saying Sir The first Step I Took has been Successfull and has done More Service Than I Expected, in which The Town does me too much Honour, in Supposeing it well Enough done to be your Own. I Mean the Essay Upon Credit" (Letters, 276-277). The Essay is attributed to Harley in A Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts, 2:1–9. So is no. no (2:10–18).


In a 5 September 1710 letter to Harley, Defoe says, "If you Think it proper, I would Offer Another Piece of The Same kind [as An Essay upon Publiek Credit]; which I would Call an Essay Upon Loans" (Letters, 277). Item no. no appeared later the same month.


The reference is in volume six of Samuel Halkett and John Laing's Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous English Literature, as enlarged by James Kennedy, W. A. Smith, and A. F. Johnson (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1932), p. 304 (under the tide "Captain Tom's ballad; or, Captain Tom's lamentation for his mob's tribulation").


Furbank and Owens admit that "With a fraction more hesitation, since there are no 'Captain Tom' allusions in the Review at this time, and the style is more demotic ... one can apply the same argument in support of Defoe's authorship as with item 106(P)" (CB, 104–105).


Defoe denied his authorship of this piece, attributing it to someone else. "Nevertheless," Furbank and Owens conclude, "internal evidence strongly suggests his authorship" (CB, 106).


History of the Present Parliament, 89.


The bookseller Joseph Button wrote to Defoe about this pamphlet c. 25 December 1710: "When you do Bickerstaff I wou'd not ha' you fright all people as you say you will" (Letters, 305).


"Robert Wodrow, in a letter to his wife of 10 May 1711, writes that he is enclosing 'a pamphlet, "Counsel to the Assembly" by Defoe"' (CB, 109).


In a 3 March 1711 letter to Harley, Defoe asks "whether if a Small pamphlett ... were written to Allay the feares and Lessen the Surprize of the people There, to Dispose Them to Consider Calmly of Things, and a Little Encourage Them–whether you may not Think it Usefull at Such a Juncture as This" (Letters, 320).


Defoe refers to this pamphlet as a "Vile Ill Natur'd Pamphlet" and "a Bitter Invective" not by him: "It is Certainly Written by Some English man, and I have Some Guess at the Man, but dare not be positive" (Letters, 306–307). Furbank and Owens (not unwisely) disbelieve him, "above all because [Atalantis Major] corresponds so closely to what he had written earlier to Harley" (CB, 111).


"Defoe was friendly with Dalby Thomas, a governor of the African Company, and was widely believed to be a hired advocate for the company" (CB, 112).


Furbank and Owens also observe that this pamphlet refers to "a writer of much penetration who continually warned the Whigs of the danger of running down credit ... almost certainly an allusion to Defoe." The piece does criticize the Review, but they conclude that such criticism "can probably be taken as a ruse" (CB, 117).


"The tone and complex line of argument as regards Occasional Conformity are very close to those of Defoe's known writings on the subject"; a favorite allusion; reference that suggests "that the author has the backing of fellow Dissenters" (CB, 119). It was also advertised in the Review.


In a 14 February 1712 letter to Harley, Defoe says, "I Reproach my Self with The Answer I gave your Ldpp when you were pleased to Ask me if I had any thing Perticular to Offer, Because I Fully purposed to have Represented a Perticular Case of the Poor keel men of New Castle. ... There is So Much Justice ... in The Case That I Perswade my Self your Ldpp will be pleased with Appearing in behalf of a Thousand Families of poor and Injured Men, who None but God and your Ldpp can Now Deliver; If your Ldpp pleases to give me Leav I would Gladly Lay an Abstract of The Case before you" (Letters, 369).


Although this attribution is deduced from content, and regarded as merely "highly 'probable'" by Furbank and Owens, the detailed reference to Defoe and his career seem to me virtually to constitute a claimed authorship.


In "Defoe and the Dutch Alliance: Some Attributions Examined," BJECS 9 (1986): 169–182, Furbank and Owens argue that, of the six pamphlets on 1710–1712 Anglo-Dutch peace negotiations attributed to Defoe by earlier bibliographers, only three are legitimate: 140(P), 141(P), and 143(P). They contend that the Enquiry's "telling rhetorical organization" is "suggestive of Defoe," and that the argument corresponds "with Defoe's position in the Review," which leads them to conclude that "the attribution is correct, and that the pamphlet is by Defoe" (176). Given the certitude reflected in this verdict, one might wonder why they label the pamphlet merely "probable" in the Bibliography. The case for Defoe's authorship of Reasons against Fighting and A Further Search is strengthened, Furbank and Owens argue, by circumstantial evidence. In a letter to Harley, Defoe seems to promise to write a pamphlet that fits the description of Reasons against Fighting, and there is a similarly suggestive epistolary reference to a work that might be A Further Search. The style of A Further Search, moreover, "has here and there an edge and neat turn of phrase-making that seem reasonably Defoean" (180).


The reference is in a 5 June 1712 letter to Harley, where Defoe says that he is enclosing "books," presumably nos. 140(P) and 141 (P), though the references are vague. Of the first, he explains, "It is written without Doores, and for The Use of Those Cheifly, who kno' Nothing but without Doores. I hope it May be Usefull to Undeciev an abused people, and Let Them see How The wholl Nation was Forming into One Tribe of Issachar, and Taught to Couch Under The Tyranny of Our Neighbours." He goes on to explain that he is sending "another book ... in Answer to The Dutch Memorialls." He insists that he is "farr from Exciting the people against The Dutch, and believ it is not the Governments View to Injure or Break with The Dutch; but it Seems Necessary ... to have the Dutch Friends and Not Masters" (Letters, 376, 377).


See note to no. 85.


Furbank and Owens say that, "since the persona of 'Count Tariff' was directly associated with Mercator by Addison," this praise "is strongly suggestive of Defoe's authorship" (CB, 140).


As further "evidence," Furbank and Owens explain that Defoe had, in a letter to Harley, encouraged him "to get Steele expelled from Parliament." They conclude that "Out of these circumstantial facts a 'probable' attribution seems to emerge" (CB, 141).


Oldmixon, Remarks on the Letter to the Dissenters, 24.


To Harley, Defoe writes, "I have also Compil'd a Letter to The Dissenters, of which I had a hint from your Ldpp" (Letters, 424).


The attribution of items 161, 164(P), 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 175(P), and 194 are addressed in more detail in Furbank and Owens, "The Lost Property Office: Some Defoe Attributions Reconsidered," PBSA 86 (1992): 245–67. Furbank and Owens sort 24 "Harley" pamphlets attributed to Defoe by Moore into "Defoe's," "probably Defoe's," and unlikely to be Defoe's. They list no. 161 as merely "probable" in this article, and (without explanation) upgrade it to "definite" in CB.


Dunton, The Impeachment, or Great Britain's Charge Against the Present M[inistr]y, 24.


Boyer, Political State for June 1717.


Some people attributed this to Harley; both Harley and Defoe (in an Appeal to Honour and Justice) denied authorship (CB, 148). Either we disbelieve Defoe's passionate defense of himself or we deprive him of authorship.


Defoe explains "why I have not Persued what I was upon for Vindicateing your Ldpps person and Conduct and Exposeing your Enemyes as I had proposed to your Ldpp and which was actually in the Press and part of it Printed off" (Letters, 444). Furbank and Owens conclude that "it is hard to doubt that this was the promised pamphlet he referred to in a letter to Harley of 3 August 1714" (CB, 148–49).


Pittis (?), Queen Anne Vindicated, 12–15.


Furbank and Owens argue that "it is difficult not to conclude that he wrote [this pamphlet] and that it is a work of fiction" (CB, 151).


Read's Weekly Journal for 8 November 1718.


In The Life And Strange Surprizing Adventures of Mr. D[aniel] De F[oe], Gildon has "Defoe" say, "I have written against my old Teachers in the Shape and Form of a Quaker, as in a Pamphlet to T. B. a Dealer in many Words; and in the same Form I have attack'd the B...of B..., one who is equally hated by them" (xv). The "Pamphlet to T. B." is evidently item no. 170, the full tide of which is A Friendly Epistle by way of Reproof from one of the People called Quakers, to Thomas Bradbury, a Dealer in many Words. Nos. 172 and 174 are related to 170 (the title pages of both announce that the work is "By the same Friend that wrote to Thomas Bradbury), which is presumably why Furbank and Owens use Gildon to support the attribution of these items as well as of no. 170. The same is true for no. 195, attributed on the title page to "a Ministring Friend, who writ to Tho. Bradbury, a Dealer in many Words." Items 172, 174, and 195 are labeled "contemporary attribution" here because Gildon clearly associated Defoe with a group of related pamphlets.


Boyer, Political State for June 1717.


Furbank and Owens suggest that "the discriminating and provocative tribute to the genius of Louis XIV ... seems particularly characteristic and has many parallels in the Review" (CB, 160).


James Crossley, "Defoe's Pamphlet on the Septennial Bill," Notes and Queries, 1st ser., 5 (1852): 577–579.


Defoe's claim appears in an article in the St. James's Post, reprinted in Mercurius Politicus (July 1717). Furbank and Owens explain that "Boyer, in the Political State for April 1716, accuses Defoe of writing an attack on the bill to extend the life of Parliament... and mentions the present tract as one of seven written in favour of the bill and therefore as not by Defoe" (CB, 164).


Boyer, Political State for June 1717.


As "most probably" rather than a definite attribution.


This variation "is one of many such adaptations of the line by Defoe" (CB, 167).


Furbank and Owens listed this item as a doubtful attribution in Defoe De-Attributions (pp. 95–96), but "new light on Defoe's political stance at this period now inclines us to accept it as probable" (CB, 171). They also accept the successor to this pamphlet, no. 193(P) (p. 100 in Defoe De-Attributions).


Boyer, Political State for June 1717. As Furbank and Owens point out, "Toland, who was an old enemy of Defoe, went along with the attribution, gleefully exploiting the chance to score off him" (CB, 170). "Toland, in The Second Part of the State-Anatomy, answered [this pamphlet], making merciless fun of the paradox of the author of The True-Born Englishman (of all people) extolling the English nobility and whipping up prejudice against foreigners" (CB, 176). Defoe flatly denies authorship of this piece in 193(P), but perhaps disingenuously.


The author of The Conduct of Robert Walpole Esq. reports that "Fair Payment no Spunge ... was also said to be written by the Order of the first Contrivers: Some said it was written by the aforesaid Paterson; others, who pretended to speak from better Information, said it was done by Daniel de Foe" (p. 59; quoted in CB, 172).


James Crossley, "'Inquiry into the State of the Union, by the Wednesday Club in Friday Street,"' Notes and Queries, 1st ser., 7 (1853): 576.


The piece expresses sentiments similar to those in no. 189; includes a remark also found in nos. 7 and 8; its title may recall no. 148; there are possible reference to no. 148; a "classic Defoe formulation" and a "very Defoean homily." Also, "the absurd prejudice of supposing that anyone who finds things to praise in an enemy must be a traitor [is] frequently echoed in the Review" (CB, 173).


A Presbyterian Getting on Horse-Back, 3–4. From Furbank and Owens's point of view, however, the author of this piece is half wrong: the author says that no. 191(P) must be by the same author as The Repeal of the Act against Occasional Conformity Considered, and "I should suspect De Foe to be the Author." Furbank and Owens do not attribute The Repeal of the Act to Defoe (CB, 174), which means that we cannot count this contemporary's testimony as reliable external evidence.


"Wodrow, in the preface to his The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1721–22), discusses this work and says that it is generally believed to be by the author of the History of the Union. He makes a more explicit attribution to Defoe in a letter to James Fraser (undated, but about November 1720)" (CB, 175).


"The present tract's denial that Defoe wrote [188(P)] ... carries little conviction in the face of so much external evidence" (CB, 177). The external evidence to which they refer is presumably the Boyer and Toland attributions of no. 188(P) to Defoe (both hostile).


Oldmixon, A Reply to the Late Bishop Atterbury's Vindication, 7. Boyer's statements in the Political State (June 1717) implies that this tract is Defoe's. Defoe replied to Boyer (in a letter signed "D.F." in St James's Post, reprinted in Mercurius Politicus, July 1717), challenging him to "produce some Proof" that he had written it. The Post Boy advertisement attributes it to someone else (CB, 178).


As Furbank and Owens point out, however, Wilson admitted "that there was probably 'no solid foundation' for the attribution" (CB, 179).


"Despite his disclaimers and the Post Boy advertisement the ascription to Defoe is convincing, and one passage in particular helps support the theory that he wrote it and constitutes a complicated private joke" (CB, 178).


See note to no. 170.


This piece includes lengthy quotations from no. 20 and cites no. 23; it includes a favorite "dog-Latin tag" of Defoe's; and its approach is similar to Defoe's known writings (CB, 187).


Furbank and Owens do not mention that Gildon attributed this to Defoe in the "postscript" to The Life And Strange Surprizing Adventures of Mr. D[aniel] De F[oe]: "Having just run thro' the first Volume and clos'd my Letter, I was told that the second Volume was at last come out" (29).


"There could be thought to be the hint of an attribution to Defoe in a passage from a pamphlet Considerations on the Consequences of the French settling Colonies on the Mississippi excerpted in the Political State for April 1720: '... all your heavy Fellows, who pass for wise ... have thought it the shortest Way [our italics] to tell us gravely it will certainly come to nothing, and to treat it as a meer Chimaera' [our italics]" (CB, 191). They point out that passages from The Chimera (206(P)) had been reprinted in the Political State the previous January.


As Furbank and Owens point out, "Defoe claimed more than once to have ... a manuscript by an English gentleman who served under Gustavus Adolphus" (CB, 194).


Furbank and Owens suggest that Noble's 1784 edition of Captain Singleton "is, perhaps, the first ascription of it to Defoe" (CB, 196). I have found additional evidence suggested a significantly earlier first attribution: a 17 67 edition of Captain Singleton sold by Francis Noble (and others) is advertised as "Published originally from the Captain's Manuscript, by the celebrated Daniel Defoe." See The London Chronicle, 23–25 June 1767. The tide page of this edition (labeled the "third") says 1768, but the advertisement announces it as appearing on that day.


Jonathan E. Hill, "Defoe's Singleton?" PBSA 84 (1990): 285–296.


The connection with Defoe is, however, tenuous. The appearance of this verse passage in the Review is sixteen years earlier than the publication of The Case of Mr Law, and the same passage is quoted at p. 22 of A Letter from a Gentleman at the Bath, to his Friend in London (1722), a work never associated with Defoe.


This attribution was made by Crossley in a letter to the Gentleman's Magazine 10 (1838): 370–371.


Every Man Mind his Own Business, 10.


Furbank and Owens point out that "Several passages from the Tour are reproduced without acknowledgment in ... Atlas Maritimus (1728)" (CB, 210–211)—an illustration of the fact that the appearance of passages from a "Defoe" work does not constitute solid evidence for an item's authorship.


J. R. Forster, History of Voyages ... Made in the North (1786); Noble's edition of Daniel De Foe's Voyage Round the World (1787).


Furbank and Owens argue that Defoe was suspected of being Moreton in his lifetime, citing the anonymous Villany Exploded (1728) as an example (CB, 214). I have, however, found no other association of Defoe with Moreton in his lifetime. In the "Cibber" list of 1753, Shiels includes nos. 233 (as "History of Magic") and 238, the latter as "under the name of Moreton," but does not attribute the other Moreton pamphlets to Defoe (see p. 323). Chalmers (1790) included 233 and 238 as Defoe's (pp. 82, 83), but he regarded the other "Moreton" works (nos. 222, 232, 241, 243, and 245) as merely "supposed to be De Foe's" (see p. 86). Nos. 233 and 238 are not in fact part of the Moreton series, as Furbank and Owens point out, but 238 was reissued (as The Secrets of the Invisible World Disclos'd) with "Andrew Moreton" on the title page, and a second edition of 233 also includes that name (CB, 213).


As Furbank and Owens point out, Trent "cites a manuscript note [dated 1759] in one of his copies: 'I was told by Mr. Bowles, print-seller ... that it was composed by Daniel Defoe"' (CB, 220).


The piece includes a favorite allusion; a reference that appears in no. 227; a claim also made in no. 223; and a line of verse also in no. 233.


Furbank and Owen note that an abridgment entitled Chickens feed Capons (1731 [for 1730]) reproduced some of no. 232, though they doubt Defoe's participation in or authorization of it.


Items included in the Critical Bibliography chiefly because they are continuations of earlier "Defoe" works are labeled here "deduced-context." 236(P) is "deduced from content" because both it and the work to which it is connected are attributed on the grounds of internal evidence.


A 30 January 1705 letter to "The Select Committee of the House of Lords" is printed in Letters (pp. 73-77). The author of no. 242(P), Furbank and Owens explain, gives "an approving account of a similar long and intricate proposal 'laid before a Committee of Parliament' some years ago" (CB, 234).


Furbank and Owens retain Some Objections as a "probable" attribution, while de-attributing two other pamphlets on imprisonment for debt (all three were treated as certain by Moore). See "Defoe and Imprisonment for Debt: Some Attributions Reviewed," The Review of English Studies, n.s., 37 (1986): 495-502.


Furbank and Owens point out that "There was much anonymous verse, in the main most probably by Defoe himself" in the Review [CB, 244). They also explain that "Occasionally, Defoe reprinted previously published pamphlets in the Review. ... More usually, though, articles from or issues of the Review were reprinted as pamphlets. It is often difficult to tell whether this was done with Defoe's authorisation or not" (245).


On which see J. A. Downie, "Mr. Review and His Scribbling Friends: Defoe and the Critics, 1705-1706," Huntington Library Quarterly 41 (1978): 345-366.


As, for example, in the Review for 30 January 1707, where he insists "no Person whatsoever has or ever had any Concern in writing the said Paper Entitled the REVIEW, than the known Author D. F. "... and that "wherever the Author may be, the Papers are wrote with his own Hand."


Narcissus Luttrell reports that "de Foe is ordered to be taken into custody for reflecting on admiral Rooke, in his Master Mercury" (quoted in CB, 249).


Boyer's ascription is in the Political State for May 1713. Furbank and Owens point out that "Various suggestions were made as to the authorship of Mercator" (CB, 250).


In the Review,Furbank and Owens report, Defoe "speaks as if the Mercator were by another author," and in An Appeal to Honour and Justice, he admits to having some part in it, but insists that he "neither was the Author of it, had the Property of it, the Printing of it, or the Profit by it." In a cryptic passage in a 21 May 1714 letter to Harley, Defoe seems to claim sole authorship (see Letters, 441).


The Flying-Post for 26-29 June 1714 includes criticism of the Monitor: are to remember, that if D.F. be the Author (as 'tis generally suppos'd) he is famous for Irony ..." (CB, 252).


One issue includes a story for which there are "several analogues ... in known Defoe writings"; another issue includes a discussion of Steele very similar to one in a letter to Harley. A passage in yet another issue "corresponds closely, and at one point word-for-word, with a letter of Defoe's to Harley on the same subject" (CB, 252-253).


A passage in the 5 August 1720 Commentator (255(P)) attributes The Manufacturer to "Daniel" (CB, 254).


"An attack on [The Commentator] in the Weekly Medley for 16-23 January 1720 ('composed equally of Ignorance and Malice, and like a common FOE to all ingenious and learned men') might be hinting at Defoe as author" (CB, 255).


This paper includes several parallels to other Defoe writings: an anecdote used in no. 216 and another used in the Review; a quotation from no. 34; a comment very similar to one in no. 267 and the Review; a bit of wordplay paralleled in no. 224; a discussion akin to one in the Review; a Rochester quotation also found in the Review; and a discussion of credit that "is very much in Defoe's style upon this favourite topic." One issue includes an epigraph similar to the opening lines of no. 271 (CB, 256).


Printed in Gildon, History of the Athenian Society.


Dunton, Life and Errors, 240.


"The letter was declared treasonable, as a result of which Mist's offices were raided and searched and the staff taken into custody; and under questioning Mist testified that the letter was the work of Defoe, as did the bookseller Thomas Warner and a certain Jonathan Marshall, who said it had been delivered to him by Defoe's gardener" (CB, 259–60).


"The Universal Spectator was edited by Defoe's son-in-law Henry Baker, and in his set of copies of this journal ... Baker has written Defoe's name against this essay" (CB, 260).


See J. A. Downie, "'Mistakes on all Sides': A New Defoe Manuscript," The Review of English Studies, n.s., 27 (1976): 431-437.


The piece is known "from a transcript, headed 'De-Foe's Satyr' by George Staniland ... in a letter to an unknown recipient, dated 11 May 1709" (CB, 266).