University of Virginia Library

Search this document 


expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
Recurrent Printing by William B. Todd
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
expand section 
collapse section 
collapse section2.0. 
expand section2.1. 
expand section2.2. 

expand section 


Page 189

Recurrent Printing
William B. Todd

For many eighteenth-century books the printer supplied only enough copies to meet immediate needs and then, whenever he could hold the type, reimpressed as often as a continuing sale might require. Work in moderate demand might proceed through several printings, each issued at a certain interval and readily identified by differences in paper, text, typography, or press figures. Work achieving sudden notoriety, on the other hand, might run through numerous impressions, all issued, perhaps, only a day or so apart and bearing very few marks of identification. Occasionally, indeed, as with Erskine's View of the Present War with France (1797), the interval is so close as to be non-existent and the variation so slight as to be detected only in the changing 'edition' label on the title. The View, published 8 A.M. Saturday, 11 February, went through nine 'editions' by the end of the following week, fifteen by the end of the month, twenty-five by the end of March, and thirty-five shortly thereafter.

Whether this tract actually comprised so many 'editions' was then and is now a matter of some concern. In his Letter to Erskine John Gifford remarks that he was unable to peruse a copy "until it had been deemed expedient to imprint 'The Ninth Edition' in the title-page," and somewhat later plaintively inquires:

Sir, permit me to ask you, whether the artifices which have been employed to provoke a forced circulation of your work, are such as are consistent with the dignity of your public character? As if determined to prove the justice of my suspicion, that you wrote for the populace, and not for the people, a cheap edition has been announced, men have been hired to hawk it about at the coffee-houses, and in the streets, and not a retailer of seditious publications in the populous suburbs of the metropolis but proclaims the amplitude of his stock by a bill at his door, calculated, by its enormous size, to catch the eye of the passenger.—In short, the very same manoeuvres have been exerted to extend the sale of your production as were used to circulate the treasonable tracts of your client—that infamous incendiary Thomas Paine.
To this Gifford appends a revealing note:
The public will be less surprized at the number of editions through which your work has so rapidly passed, when they are informed, that each edition consisted only of a fourth part of the number which it


Page 190
is usual to print; so that the fourteen editions of Mr. Burke's pamphlet[1] would be equal to fifty-six of your own. The public taste, therefore, in this instance, is not so depraved as it appears to be.—The press, too, has been kept standing, in order that any number of editions might be printed, without any additional expence to the publisher.[2]

Printing from standing type, the procedure Gifford regards as exceptional, was, of course, by this time a common device, evident not only in the 35 'editions' of Erskine, but in the 14 of Burke and, as a matter of fact, in the 11 of Gifford's own Letter. Whatever the number printed, the total count is thus, for each of these, equally suspect. Among these sixty only six may be correctly described as editions; all others are of lesser significance and uncertain denomination, ranging, so far as one may judge by appearances, from a completely differentiated impression to a single alteration at press—the 'edition' label.

When it comes to defining these and other doubtful specimens even the most scrupulous bibliographer is soon reduced to an expedient no less reprehensible than the one Gifford deplores. Since in these instances he is usually unable either to distinguish separate from continuous printing or to determine the relationship among points confined to one or extending to several 'editions', the bibliographer must designate all such curiosities by the most inclusive and least exact term at his disposal. 'Issue,' always implying a certain interval of time, cannot apply to these uncertainties. 'State,' often implying an alteration at press, is likewise inapplicable, contrary to the explicit declaration on the title and inappropriate for variations which, though unseen, may yet be as real as those existing in stereotype. 'Impression,' however, being much less restrictive, offers the bibliographer a way around the difficulties already mentioned, allows the printer every right to his claim ('impression' being, for him, equivalent to 'edition'), and imposes upon the reader the task of proving otherwise. In this context all that the bibliographer implies is recurrent printing, a somewhat indefinable condition affecting an indeterminate number of pages and extending over an immeasurable period of time.

Unfortunately, if the bibliographer assumes even this much, some inquisitive reader may discover a point apparently limiting the condition to the title and thus degrade the supposed impression to a variant state. Such evidence probably will be found, not in the defects earlier printers endeavored to remedy—in mispagination, omitted signatures, false catchwords, errata lists, and the like—all of which are now generally left


Page 191
unattended, but rather in slight alterations of the text. If these occur either as cancels persisting through several 'editions' or as readings mixed in various sheets obviously the gatherings so affected derive from stock available upon original issue. But again, the evidence, though disallowing 'impression' as proper reference for the entire work, is itself so qualified that 'state' may not everywhere apply. A hybrid of this sort appears in specimen C5.

Amid all these uncertainties I now present various examples of what, for want of a better word, may be described as recurrent impressions. As these progress, often within the same book, through several gradations subject to more precise definition, they are listed most conveniently by author and the variant identified by one of the six letters cited below. After each letter I indicate the significance of the term as employed in these circumstances.

  • (a) Edition. All or an appreciable portion reset. Since resetting may extend from 1 to 99 per cent of the type, 'edition' here refers to any book reset in two or more consecutive gatherings, an apparent indication that earlier distribution was intentional and later composition an undertaking not previously contemplated.
  • (b) Issue. A much-abused word, but useful in this analysis for anything less than an edition but more than an impression.[2a]
  • (c) Impression. A reprint, with or without revisions, issued possibly with other printings, but separately prepared and distinguished by a full array of press figures or other series of points.
  • (d) Recurrent impression. Certainly in part and perhaps in whole a separate printing; without the usual sequence of points, but exhibiting at least one other than title.
  • (e) Recurrent impression (assumed). Differing it would seem only in title, but presumed to vary consistently in other respects. A provisional designation for variants which, in the absence of other evidence, cannot be classified as d or f.
  • (f) State. Variant occurring within an impression.

When these criteria are applied to the twenty books listed below and the results posted in the accompanying Table it is apparent that, even upon the most liberal construction of the term 'edition', the 158 so described by the printer actually comprise only 28, and that of the 130 remaining no less than 82 fall into limbo e, beyond definition. Yet these imponderables are not to be disregarded, even in a bibliography limited to 'the first edition', for by definition of that term all are essential to it.


Page 192

Tabulation of Variants

Book  Total 
Edition Titled  14  12[4]   35[5]   12  10  158 
(a) actual[3] Comprising  28 
(b) issue 
(c) imp[3]   37 
(d) r. imp  32 
(e) r. imp?  10  20  82 
(f) state 

Notes on Variants

In the following survey the number of copies examined, while adequate for illustration, is quite inadequate for bibliographical purposes. Very likely if, as intended, this review prompts further inquiry, other impressions (or whatever one chooses to call them) will be found intervening between those now identified and, among those described, some few may be designated by a term other than the one here assigned.

    A] Bowen, Essex. A Statement of Facts. 1792.

  • 1 (c). Press figures: xiii-3 2-3 15-2 18-3 31-1 34-1 47-1 50-3 58—
  • 2 (d). As for 1 except that figures different position pages xiii, 15, no figure page 34, figure 2 pages 47, 58. In both, G2 and I2 unsigned.

    B] Burke, Edmund. Letter on His Pension. 1796. ('Edition' only on half-title)

  • 1 (c). No figures. Erratum page 80.
  • 2 (d). Erratum removed, text corrected.
  • 3 (e). Only variant on half-title.
  • 4 (c). Page 7, line 6 'public' now reads 'publick'. Seven other alterations.
  • 5-12 (e). Only variant on half-title.
  • 13 (d). Page 18, line 15 word now hyphenated 'contra-indicants'. One other alteration.
  • 14 (e). Only variant on half-title.

    C] Burke, Edmund. Two Letters on the Proposals for Peace. 1796. ('Edition' only on half-title)

  • 1 (c). No figures. Three errata p. iv. Cancel I3 set in quadruplicate.
  • 2-4 (f). Variant states, still exhibiting errata and the cancel in one or another setting.

  • 193

    Page 193
  • 5 (d). Still with errata and cancel but 120 figure 9, presumably denoting reimpression in one or more gatherings.
  • 6 (c). Figures: 68-5 80-2 88-4 96-1 104-6 106-3 120-9 124-8. Errata corrected; I3 integral.
  • 7-12 (-). Complications impossible to describe here. See forthcoming bibliography.

    D] Cumberland, Richard. The Box-Lobby Challenge. [1794]

  • 1 (c). No figures. Page 59 unnumbered; 20, 58 no catchwords; headlines incorrectly pointed throughout; 24 wrong headline; 59 line 43 reads 'pirit' for 'spirit'.
  • 2-5 (e). Only variant on title. All errors uncorrected.

    E] Erskine, Thomas. A View of the Present War with France. 1797.

  • To facilitate reference a rule indicates a distinct interruption in the printing. Within each sequence it will be noted that, as presswork continues, succeeding variants gradually become indistinguishable.
  • 1 (c). Figures: 2-5 14-5 30-3 37-1 45-1 52-4 60-1 66-1 76-4 84-1 90-4 103-1 112-5 114-1 124-3 133-2 139-2. Paper white or bluish rough wove, dated 1796. Page 138 below text two errata, both uncorrected. Note; MH Law copy has gatherings C-D figured 10-1, 23-3, a combination related to 'Third Edition'.
  • 2 (e). Only variant on title. Errata still listed and uncorrected. Note: except for prelims NN copy (CK p.v.66) is of 'Third Edition' impression.
  • ------------
  • 3 (a). Figures: 7-1 10-2 23-3 28-5 40-1 48-4 50-2 64-4 66&c. as for 1. Titled 'Third' but actually second edition: gatherings K-T apparently same impression; A, C-D, F reimpressed; E, G-I and pages 3-8 of B reset. Paper as for 1-2. Page 61 misnumbered 91. Errata corrected and list removed.
  • 4-5 (e). Only variant on title.
  • ------------
  • 6 (a). Figures: 7-1 10-2 23-3 28-5 40-2 48-4 50-5 64-4 [66-114 no figures] 124-3 133-2 139-1. Titled 'Sixth' but actually third edition: gatherings B-E, G, I, R-S apparently same impression; A, F, H, T reimpressed; K-Q reset. Paper bluish smooth wove dated 1796.
  • 7 (d). Figures as for 6 except 10-1. Two revisions only, both in F gathering page 35. Line 1 'The expression of this' now reads 'The same' and line 7 omits 'without his . . . mediation'.
  • 8 (d). Other than title only variant, figure removed from page 124.
  • 9 (d). Other than title only variant, dropped colon after catchword page 9.
  • 10-11 (e). Only variant on title.
  • ------------
  • 12 (c). Figures: 7-5 10-2 23-1 28-3 40-5 48-4 50-1 64-4 126-3 133-2 139-1. Titled 'Twelfth' edition; presumably 7th impression 3d edition; demonstrably 2d impression 3d edition, as attested by paper now of white rough wove dated 1794 with initials TE. Gatherings C, G, I-Q, S-T same figures but apparently, as judged by paper, of an interrupted impression; A, B, D-F, H,


    Page 194
    R reimpressed. Two revisions only: gathering B, page 3 line 8, omits 'and identified'; gathering F, page 35 line 21 omits 'brought from Versailles, and'. 13(d). Other than title only variant page 35 line 22 'and' now reads 'but' M. Chauvelin. Last revision noted in this book.
  • 14-15 (f). From 3 to this point gathering I apparently recurrent impression (64-4) with 61 misnumbered 91. Here in copies examined mixed sheets with correction entered not in 15th but in 14th 'edition'.
  • 16(e). Only variant on title.
  • 17 (d). Other than title only variants 139-4 and 140 additional advt. for Orme's Practical Digest.
  • 18 (d). Paper as for 12 mixed with blue wove dated 1796. 139-5.
  • 19-21 (e). Only variant on title.
  • ------------
  • 22 (c). Figures: 7-2 10-2 23-1 28-3 40-1 48-4 50-1 64-3 126-3 133-2 139-1 This 'Twenty-Second' edition presumably 13th impression, demonstrably 3d impression 3d edition. Presswork interrupted for 1796 blue wove paper; B, F, I, T gatherings reimpressed.
  • 23-24 (e). Only variant on title. ICJ copy 24 has gathering E from 25.
  • 25 (d). Other than title 28-4 64-4.
  • ------------
  • 32 (c). Figures: 7-1 10-1 23-1 28-3 40-4 48-4 50-1 64-3 122-5 133-5 139-3 This 'Thirty-Second' edition presumably 17th impression, demonstrably 4th impression 3d edition. Now on bluish wove dated 1795.
  • 33 (e). Only variant on title.
  • ------------
  • 26-31, 34-35 (a). Some recognized and all presumed to be of the 91 page 12mo. 'cheap edition' to which Gifford refers, all perhaps again run off standing type and therefore constituting a fourth edition. As compared with the 8vo., listed at 3s, the 12mo. sold for 6d (Monthly Magazine, March 1797, p. 229).
  • Note: In 8vo. 'editions' advt leaf 139-40 present only in certain copies of 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20-23, 32; figure on 139 therefore presumed for the others.

    F] Gunning, Susannah. A Letter to the Duke of Argyll. 1791.

    1 (c).  8-4  14-2  18-6  24-6  29-1  40-1  42-6  52-1  59-4  77-6  78-4  88-3  90-1  98-4 
    2 (d).  52-2  59-6 
    or   --  88-4 
    3 (d).  9-1  16-6  --  22-6  --  46-6  --  --  88-3 
    or   10-1  --  --  59-4  77-6 
    4 (d).  16-4  --  25-1  40-2  46-5  52-2  77-2 
    1.  108--  112-3  '119'-7  126-2  132-6  142-7  146-2 
    2.  -- 
    or   --  132-2 
    3.  --  -- 
    or   108-3  -- 
    4.  --  --  132-6 


    Page 195
  • Much of this seems to be continuous presswork, some of it, apparently, engaged 'round the clock. Note defects retained throughout (3 errata p. 148, battered page no. 27, 119 erroneous catchword 'hour', 120-121 misnumbered 119-120); alterations confined to figures; superfluous figures within same forme (C[o] 24 and 29, H[o] 108 and 112); temporary relief provided for men originally assigned certain formes (recurrent figures pages 59, 88, 132); numerous shifts in presswork even within same 'edition'.

    G] Inchbald, Elizabeth. Lover's Vows. 1798.

  • 1 (c). No figures. Page 45 line 24 of poem 'littleready'.
  • 2 (d). Other than title only variant separation of two words.
  • 3-7 (e). Only variant on title.

    H] Inchbald, Elizabeth. Wives as They Were. 1797.

  • 1 (c). Figures: 8-1 12-8 24-9 32-5 36-9 47-1 56-8 63-7 69-5 79-6 86-8 95-9
  • 2 (d). Other than title only variant 56-9. (No copy reported; presumed from variation in 3.)
  • 3-6 (e). Only variant on title.

    I] Lewis, Matthew G. The East Indian. 1800.

  • 1 (c). Figures: 5-6 6-7 12-8 22-9 26-9 39-6 47-7 53-9 63-6 70-5 80-7 82-5
  • 2 (d). Other than title only variant 22-6.
  • 3 (d). Other than title variants 5-5 22-9. (No copy reported; presumed from variation in 4.)
  • 4 (e). Only variant on title.

    J] Macpherson, James. A Short History of the Opposition. 1779.

  • 1 (c). iii-2 8-2 13-2 21-2 28-6 40-5 46-3 52-6. 23 catchword 'absentees'
  • 2 (c). iii-8 8-3 13-4 21-2 28-4 40-3 46-3 52-2. 23 catchword 'absentees,'
  • 3 (c). iii-8 8-6 13-6 21-5 28-5 40-4 46-5 52-6.
  • 4-6 (e). Only variant on title. In all 'editions' iv misnumbered vi.

    K] Mason, William. An Heroic Epistle to Sir William Chambers. 1773. (Gaskell 13)

  • 1 (c). No figures.
  • 2 (a). Except for prelims, entire edition reset, and of different collation.
  • 3 (e). Only variant on title.
  • 4 (d). Other than title, dedication line 4 'diclined' corrected.
  • 5-9 (e). Only variant on title.
  • 10 (d). Other than title, note to verse 72, line 9, previously 'in extensive' now 'on extensive'.
  • 11 (d). Other than title, note to verse 84, line 1, 'Bagshot!' now reads 'Bagshot.'; verse 108 'And o'er' now 'Ando'er'.
  • 12 (a). Reset.

    L] Mason, William. An Heroic Postscript to the Public. 1774. (Gaskell 14)

  • 1 (c). No figures. Line 67 'number'

  • 196

    Page 196
  • 2-4 (e). Only variant on title. Presumably 5-6, not seen, also invariant.
  • 7 (d). Line 67 'numbers'
  • 8 (d). Several alterations page 15, list of books printed for Almon. In his commentary on this work Dr Gaskell notes the reimpression of the three poems listed here and several others.

    M] Mason, William. Ode to Mr. Pinchbeck. 1776. (Gaskell 17)

  • 1 (c). Figures: 3-3 6-2 10-3
  • 2 (e). Only variant on title. Presumably 3-4, not seen, also invariant.
  • 5 (c). 3-4 6-4 10-4

    N] O'Bryen, Denis. A Defence of the Earl of Shelburne. 1782.

  • 1 (c). No figures.
  • 2 (c). Sigs in different positions, some lines reset, C2 and E2 starred.
  • 3-6 (e). Apparently variant only on title.
  • 7 (a). C2 and E2 still starred, but 41-53, 57-64, 73-96 reset. Catchword 41 'maxime', 75 'is'.
  • 8-9 (e). Apparently variant only on title.

    O] Shebbeare, John. A Third Letter to the People of England. 1756.

  • 1 (c). No figures. 2 errata page 60. 41, line 1 reads 'Loyalty'.
  • 2 (d). Other than title 41 now reads 'Disloyalty'. This may have been a compositor's stunt, blacked out in the two copies I have seen, and corrected in later editions.

    P] Shebbeare, John. A Fifth Letter to the People of England. 1757.

  • 1 (c). No figures. 6 errata verso of half-title.
  • 2 (e). Only variant on title.

    Q] Sheridan, R. B. The Critic. 1781. ('Edition' only on half-title)

  • 1 (c). Figures: 34-3 84-3 94-2
  • 2 (e). Only variant on half-title.
  • 3 (c). 2-3 13-1 34-3 52-3 62-6 84-3 94-2 and some copies 66-3 72-1. Gathering B reset.
  • 4 (d). 15-1 66-3 72-1 84-3 94-2. As figures indicate, only B and E gatherings reimpressed.
  • 5 (e). Not seen, presumably invariant.
  • 6 (d). Other than variant half-title 10-4 12-2, and page 5 unnumbered. This, the B gathering, reset.
  • Note: For description of a counterfeit, with figures corresponding to 1-2, see the Book Collector, V (1956), 172-73.

    R] Sheridan, R. B. The Rivals. 1775.

  • 1 (c). Figures: 8-1 15-3 21-5 31-6 38-1 47-3 54-3 60-6 72-4 80-8 96-2 Page a4r 2 errata. Leaf F2 starred, F2-3 a cancel. 1st state: 100-3 and catchword EPI-. 2d state: 100 unfigured, catchword removed, and FINIS entered below text. In all copies Epilogue entered on preliminary leaf a3. In MB (A.E. Newton) copy, however, 1st state reading has prompted someone to supply


    Page 197
    at the end another Epilogue from Cumberland's The West Indian (1771).
  • 2 (f). Retains errata list and cancel; agrees otherwise with 2d state.

    S] Tickell, Richard. Anticipation. 1778.

  • 1 (c). No figures. Page 71, line 23 'D a Capo'.
  • 2 (d). Other than title only variant observed 'Da Capo'.
  • 3 (a). Some of A (iii-iv), C (10, 12-16) and all of D-E reset.
  • 4 (e). Only variant on title.
  • 5 (d). Other than title only variant p. 73, line 17, 'that the' now 'that THOMAS', a variation which alters catchword from 'ditor' to 'most'.
  • 6 (d). Other than title only variant p. 11 catchword, previously 'tion', now incorrectly 'Tion'.
  • 7 (d). Three revisions pp. 31, 71, 50, the last, at line 26, altering 'Tussnell' to 'T-ss-n-ll'.
  • 8-9 (e). Only variant on title.
  • 10 (e). Other than new 'edition' label, 9-hyphen word on title altered to 7 hyphens.
  • Note: All 74 p. 'editions'. There also exist two variant 'second editions', a 67 p. version which, as noted in L.H. Butterfield's edition, was printed for Becket in 1778, and, as observed at Harvard, a 51 p. version printed for Bladon in 1779.

    T] Wraxall, Sir N. W. A Short Review of the Political State of Great-Britain. 1787.

  • 1 (c). No figures. 72 pages (title included in count).
  • 2 (a). Reset, variant collation. 70 pages (title excluded in count). G2 signed G3, I2 unsigned. Catchwords 44 'publi', 46 'ages'.
  • 3 (e). Variant only on title.
  • 4 (d). Other than title, I2 signed, 44 'public', 46 'ages,'.
  • 5 (e). Variant only on title.
  • 6 (b). 'Sixth Edition, With Additions'. 86 pages (title excluded in count), with additional blank leaf. Identical setting except for supplemental text. G2 still signed G3. Catchword p. 9 dropped.
  • 7 (d). Other than title, catchwords p. 24 'relaxation,', 75 dropped comma.

Copies Examined

Note: For E and F bracketed entries have been reported.

  • A. 1: MH, Todd. 2: MH.
  • B. (Only copies with half-titles cited) 1: CtY, MH, Gimbel. 2: CtY, Gimbel. 3: MB, MH(2). 4: MH. 5: MH. 6: CtY, NN. 7: CtY, MH, NN(2), NNC. 8—. 9: Todd. 10: Todd. 11: MH, NN. 12: CtY(?). 13: MBA, NN, NNC, Todd. 14: CtY.
  • C. (Only copies with half-titles cited) 1: CtY(2), MH, Gimbel. 2: CtY, MH. 3: MB, MH, NNC. 4: CtY, Todd. 5: MH. 6: Todd. 7:


    Page 198
    NNC. 8—. 9: MB, MH, NN, NNC. 10: CtY, MH. 11: NN. 12—.
  • D. 1-2, 5: MH.
  • E. (8vo. series) 1: CtY, MH, NN. 2: CtY, NN(2). 3: [DLC(2)]. 4: CtY, MH, NN. 5: CtY, MH, Todd. 6: MH. 7: MH, NN. 8: MH. 9: NN. 10: CtY. 11: NN. 12: CtY. 13: MH. 14: MB. 15: NN. 16: NjP. 17: MH. 18: [CLU]. 19: NN. 20: NN. 21: NN(2). 22: CtY, NN. 23: [ICJ, RPB]. 24: NN. 25: MH. 32: Todd. 33: NN. (12mo. series) 26, 29-30, 34, not recorded. 27: [CtY]. 28: [RPB]. 31: [BM]. 35: [BM].
  • F. 1: MH, Todd. 2: MH(2). 3: [IU, PU]. 4: CtY.
  • G. 1-3, 6-7: MH.
  • H. 1: CtY. 3-5: MH. 6: MB.
  • I. 1: MH. 2: CtY. 3—. 4: MH.
  • J. 1-3, 5-6: MH.
  • K. 1-5, 9-12: MH.
  • L. 1-4, 7-8: MH.
  • M. 1-2, 5: MH.
  • N. 1-3: CtY. 4: CtY, MH. 5: CtY, MB. 6: CtY. 7: CtY, MH(2). 8-9: CtY.
  • O. 1-2: MH.
  • P. 1: MB, MH(2). 2: MH(2).
  • Q. (Only copies with half-titles cited) 1: MH. 2: BM. 3: MH(2). 4: BM, MH. 5—. 6: MH.
  • R. 1: MB, MH. 2: MH.
  • S. 1: MB, MH. 2-4: MH. 5: MB. 6: MH. 7: MB. 8: MH. 9: CtY. 10: MH.
  • T. 1-7: MH.



Gifford seems to have confused Burke's Two Letters on the Proposals for Peace (12 editions), an occasion for the Erskine tract, with the Letter on His Pension (14 editions), a piece irrelevant to the View. Both, however, are proper subjects for this review of suspect impressions.


First quotation presumably entered in 1st edition, p. 2, second and note in 2d edition, pp. 179-180. The earliest edition I have seen is the third, one which, in comparison with others, allows the charge that follows but not, as yet, a full substantiation.


On reissue, a term consistently used in a recent bibliography of Hannah Cowley, see my commentary in the 1958 Winter number of the Book Collector.


Since of each book the first impression (c) must also be regarded as the initial printing of an edition, and each succeeding edition (a) as the first of one or more impressions, both variants of this order are given a double entry to balance accounts.


Six later 'editions' assigned to e category.


Eight 12mo. 'editions' assigned to e category. Besides these, as I have lately discovered, apparently two others were printed, for a 37th 12mo. edition is advertised in the Morning Chronicle of 20 November 1797.