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On the day following the appearance of Duane's dispatch, Zachariah Poulson Jr.'s American Daily Advertiser reprinted the second sentence and added a paragraph of editorial comment. It pointed to the fact that there was but one type foundry in the United States and that there were "perhaps not more than twelve persons employed."[4] The Advertiser found it hard to understand why, since there were about three thousand persons who derived their support from the printing business, so "many Peters must be robbed to compensate Paul."[5] On the evening of the same day, Samuel Relf's Philadelphia Gazette called attention to this editorial


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and noted that the increased duty "must materially retard the progress and perfection of the printing business."[6]

The next day the Philadelphia Gazette announced that it would publish a detailed consideration of the duty in the following issue.[7] Then, launching the campaign, it devoted almost two columns to the attack. The editor stressed the fact that while Fry and Steele, of London, could furnish more than one hundred different sizes of English letters in addition to characters in many foreign languages, Binny and Ronaldson could not supply more than one twentieth of this amount. While he did not deny that the firm possessed the skill required to make the additional type, he noted that the cost of the matrices would have to be borne by the printer who ordered the type. Nevertheless, even

on the limitted (sic) scale on which it is conducted, (the english, pica, long-primer and brevier forming at least nine tenths of the demand from them) these gentlemen, possessing a monopoly of the business in America, have, in a few years realised an handsome property.[8]
At this point, the editor made a rather unfortunate error. He interpreted the duty to be an additional twenty per cent, not an increase to twenty per cent. After elaborating on the injustice of such an excessive amount, he accused Duane, a British subject, of instigating this increase and concluded with the lament that
our public councils should be disgraced by an adherence to the opinions or suggestions of an individual blinded by an inveterate hatred to the country to which he owes his birth and allegiance.[9]

Meanwhile, the members of the book trade had been discussing the new tariff among themselves. Finding themselves in general agreement on the steps to be taken, they called for a meeting at Mr. Cameron's, on North Third St., at seven o'clock on Saturday, February twentieth.[10] When they assembled, Mathew Carey was chosen chairman and John H. Oswald secretary. A committee was directed to draft a memorial to Congress, the chairman was requested to ask the representative in Congress to postpone action,


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and the chairman was also requested to communicate the measures adopted to the printers and booksellers of Boston, New York, and Baltimore. After a resolution to publish the proceedings of the meeting,[11] the members adjourned to meet and receive the memorial on Monday, February twenty-second.

Duane, of course, did not neglect to answer the Gazette. His two-column reply included a brief resumé of English type founding, praise for the beautiful type of Binny and Ronaldson, as well as the statement that they employed more than twenty people.[12] Some of his remarks emphasized his personal interest in the increased duty. He declared that there were three different foundries in America which were idle through want of protection; he referred to a foundry in Philadelphia which possessed matrices for every type from non-pareil to five-line Pica, with Greek, Hebrew, and other oriental characters and three hundred different species of typographical ornaments. And, in conclusion, he repeated that several founders would resume if provided with protection. The Gazette printed its reply two days later. Its major point was that the Philadelphia foundry was in Duane's possession, having been acquired from Bache: "This is the clue, which at once unravels the mystery of his pretended attachment to the encouragement of American manufactures!"[13]

The Philadelphia book trade continued its campaign, and two papers carried notices of book trade meetings in New York and Baltimore.[14] On March 8, 1802, the following petition was read in the House of Representatives:

To the Honorable the Members of the House of
Representatives of the United States,
The memorial of the undersigned Printers and
Booksellers of the City of Philadelphia,
Respectfully represents,

That your memorialists view with extreme concern a proposition which they understand is at present under the consideration of your Honorable body, for imposing an additional duty upon the importation of printing types—a


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measure which they cannot but consider as a new proof of the paternal solicitude of the Legislature, extended to the infant manufactures of our country,—but against which your memorialists are urged by imperious considerations to remonstrate.

That the encouragement of Domestic Manufactures is an object worthy of Legislative attention, your Memorialists readily acknowledge. They are, however, of opinion, which with all due deference is submitted, that in those instances where our own manufactures are incompetent to the current demand, it is both unwise and impolitic, to prevent, by excessive imposts, a necessary supply by importation from foreign countries

Your memorialists beg leave to state, that there is, perhaps, no manufacture in our common country which so little requires the aid contemplated to be afforded by the duty in question, as that of Types. There is at present but one Foundry of English Type in operation within the Union, which they are warranted in saying is inadequate to the supply of the great and growing demand. The proposed duty will in no wise increase the capacity of supply and must operate merely, as a heavy and unequal burden on all persons mediately or immediately concerned in the printing business.

Your Memorialists also beg leave respectfully to state that the present duty on the importation of Type, affords sufficient encouragement to the manufacture within the country, so that they are neither altogether dependent on a foreign nation for their supply, nor lie at the mercy of the manufacturers at home.

Your memorialists forbear trespassing on the patience of the Legislature, and conclude with expressing a hope that your honorable body will take the premises into serious consideration, and adopt such measures therein as to your wisdom shall seem proper. And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray, &c, &c.

Jos: Crukshank. Henry Patrick Rice. Wm. Spotswood. Robt. Aitken. Thomas Dobson. William Ross. John McCulloch. Z. Poulson, junr. Mathew Carey. Wm. Bradford. Henry Sweitzer. John Ormrod. John H. Oswald. Robert Cochran. Hugh Maxwell. Thos Smith. Joseph Charless. Wm. Woodhouse. Sam1 Relf. Wm. Young. David Hogan. Charles Cist. James Humphreys. Hall & Sellers. Tho L. Plowman. Budd & Bartram. Solomon W. Conrad. William W. Woodward. John Conrad. J. W. Geyer. Peter Stewart. Jacob Johnson. Isaac Pearson. Benjamin Johnson. Thos Bradford, per Wm. Bradford. Wm Fry. Benjamin Davies. Thomas S. Manning. Joseph Groff.