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Dictionary of the History of Ideas

Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas
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Listed below are the contributors to the Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Each author's name is followed
by his institutional affiliation at the time of publication and the titles of articles written. The symbol † indicates
that an author is deceased.

NICOLA ABBAGNANO. Professor of the History
of Philosophy, University of Turin. Renaissance

H. B. ACTON. Professor, University of Edinburgh.
Hegelian Political and Religious Ideas.

JOSEPH AGASSI. Professor of Philosophy and His-
tory of Science, Boston University and Tel Aviv Uni-
versity. Anthropomorphism in Science.

A. OWEN ALDRIDGE. Editor, Comparative Liter-
ature Studies,
University of Illinois. Ancients and Mod-
erns in the Eighteenth Century; Primitivism in the
Eighteenth Century.

A. HILARY ARMSTRONG. Gladstone Professor of
Greek, University of Liverpool. Neo-Platonism.

KENNETH J. ARROW. Professor of Economics,
Harvard University. Formal Theories of Social Wel-

STUART ATKINS. Professor of German, University
of California at Santa Barbara. Motif in Literature: The
Faust Theme.

EDWARD G. BALLARD. Professor of Philosophy,
Tulane University. Sense of the Comic; Sense of the

D. M. BALME. Professor, University of London.
Biological Conceptions in Antiquity.

MOSHE BARASCH. Hebrew University. The City.

FREDERICK M. BARNARD. Professor, University
of Western Ontario. Culture and Civilization in Mod-
ern Times.

FELICE BATTAGLIA. Professor, University of
Bologna. Work.

FRANKLIN L. BAUMER. Randolph W. Townsend
Jr. Professor of History, Yale University. Romanticism
(ca. 1780 to ca. 1830)

MONROE C. BEARDSLEY. Professor, Temple
University. Theories of Beauty since the Mid-
Nineteenth Century.

LEWIS WHITE BECK. Burbank Professor of In
tellectual and Moral Philosophy, University of
Rochester. Antinomy of Pure Reason.

ISAIAH BERLIN. President of Wolfson College,
University of Oxford. The Counter-Enlightenment.

BERNARD BEROFSKY. Associate Professor of
Philosophy, Columbia University. Free Will and

PETER A. BERTOCCI. Borden Parker Bowne Pro-
fessor of Philosophy, Boston University. Creation in

JAN BIALOSTOCKI. Professor of Art History,
University of Warsaw; Curator, National Museum in
Warsaw. Iconography.

ROBERT BLANCHÉ. Honorary Professor, Univer-
sity of Toulouse. Axiomatization.

GEORGE BOAS. Professor Emeritus of the History
of Philosophy, The Johns Hopkins University. Cycles;
Idea; Macrocosm and Microcosm; Nature; Primitivism;
Vox populi.

SALOMON BOCHNER. Professor Emeritus of
Mathematics, Princeton University; Professor of Math-
ematics and Chairman of the Department, Rice Uni-
versity. Continuity and Discontinuity in Nature and
Knowledge; Infinity; Mathematics in Cultural History;
Space; Symmetry and Asymmetry.

KENNETH E. BOULDING. Professor of Econom-
ics, University of Colorado. Economic Theory of Natu-
ral Liberty.

KARL DIETRICH BRACHER. Professor of Politi-
cal Science and Contemporary History, University of
Bonn. Totalitarianism.

S. G. F. BRANDON.Church as an Institution; Idea
of God from Prehistory to the Middle Ages; Origins of
Religion; Ritual in Religion; Sin and Salvation.

ASA BRIGGS. Professor of History and Vice-
Chancellor, University of Sussex. Welfare State.

TEDDY BRUNIUS. Professor, Institute of Aes-
thetics, University of Uppsala. Catharsis.


terhouse and Emeritus Regius Professor of Modern
History, University of Cambridge. Balance of Power;
Christianity in History; Historiography.

MILIČ ČAPEK. Professor of Philosophy, Graduate
School, Boston University. Time.

D. S. L. CARDWELL. University of Manchester.

PETER CAWS. Professor of Philosophy, Hunter
College and Graduate Center, City University of New
York. Structuralism.

W. OWEN CHADWICK. Regius Professor of Mod-
ern History, University of Cambridge. Religion and
Science in the Nineteenth Century.

JACQUES CHORON.† Death and Immortality.

VINCENZO CIOFFARI. Visiting Professor and
Scholar-in-Residence, Boston University. Fortune, Fate,
and Chance.

THOMAS COLE. Professor of Greek and Latin,
Yale University. Cultural Development in Antiquity.

ROSALIE L. COLIE. Nancy Duke Lewis Professor
of Comparative Literature, Brown University. Literary

JAMES COLLINS. Professor of Philosophy, Saint
Louis University. Idea of God, 1400-1800.

LEWIS A. COSER. Distinguished Professor of Soci-
ology, State University of New York at Stony Brook.

THOMAS A. COWAN. Professor of Law, Rutgers,
The State University, Newark. Causation in Law.

MERLE CURTI. Professor Emeritus of History,
University of Wisconsin, Madison. Philanthropy; Psy-
chological Theories in American Thought.

MARY DALY. Associate Professor of Theology,
Boston College. Faith, Hope, and Charity; Social Atti-
tudes Towards Women.

RAYMOND F. DASMANN. Senior Ecologist, In-
ternational Union for the Conservation of Nature.
Conservation of Natural Resources.

ENRICO DE ANGELIS. University of Pisa. Causa-
tion in the Seventeenth Century, Final Causes.

ALLEN G. DEBUS. Professor of the History of
Science, University of Chicago (The Morris Fishbein
Center for the Study of the History of Science and
Medicine, Department of History). Alchemy.

PHILLIP DE LACY. Professor of Classical Studies,
University of Pennsylvania. Skepticism in Antiquity.

sor of Political Theory, University of Turin. The State.

DENIS DE ROUGEMONT. Director, Graduate
Institute for European Studies, Geneva. Love.

R. W. M. DIAS. Magdalene College, University of
Cambridge. Legal Concept of Freedom.

HERBERT DIECKMANN. Avalon Foundation
Professor in the Humanities, Cornell University. The-
ories of Beauty to the Mid-Nineteenth Century.

E. R. DODDS. Professor, University of Oxford. Prog-
ress in Classical Antiquity.

ALAN DONAGAN. Professor of Philosophy, Uni-
versity of Chicago. Determinism in History.

WILLIS DONEY. Professor of Philosophy, Dart-
mouth College. Causation in the Seventeenth Century.

JACQUES DROZ. Professor, Sorbonne. Romanti-
cism in Political Thought.

RENÉ DUBOS. Professor, Rockefeller University.

WAYNE DYNES. Assistant Professor, Columbia
University. Concept of Gothic.

ABRAHAM EDEL. Distinguished Professor of Phi-
losophy, Graduate Center, City University of New
York. Happiness and Pleasure; Right and Good.

MIRCEA ELIADE. University of Chicago. Myth in
the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.

JULIUS A. ELIAS. Associate Professor of Philoso-
phy, City College, City University of New York. Art
and Play.

ALVAR ELLEGÅRD. Gothenburg University.
Study of Language.

ROGER L. EMERSON. The Institute for Advanced
Study in the Humanities, University of Edinburgh.
Deism; Utopia.

AUSTIN FARRER.† Free Will in Theology.

HERBERT FEIGL. Regents' Professor of Philoso-
phy Emeritus, University of Minnesota; Director, Min-
nesota Center for the Philosophy of Science (1953-71).
Positivism in the Twentieth Century (Logical Empiri-

BLOSSOM FEINSTEIN. Assistant Professor of
English, C. W. Post College, Long Island University.

BURTON FELDMAN. Professor, University of
Denver. Myth in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth

DAVID FELLMAN. Vilas Professor of Political
Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Academic
Freedom; Constitutionalism.

FREDERICK FERRÉ. Charles A. Dana Professor
of Philosophy, Dickinson College. Design Argument;
Metaphor in Religious Discourse.

ture in Music.

JOHN FISHER. Professor of Philosophy, Temple
University. Platonism in Philosophy and Poetry.

ANGUS FLETCHER. Professor of English, State
University of New York at Buffalo. Allegory in Literary


ELIZABETH FLOWER. University of Pennsyl-
vania. Ethics of Peace.

PAUL FORIERS. Professor, and Dean of the Law
School, University of Brussels. Natural Law and Natu-
ral Rights.

MORRIS D. FORKOSCH. Professor, University
of San Diego Law School. Justice; Due Process in Law;
Equal Protection in Law.

LIA FORMIGARI. Professor, Philosophy of Lan-
guage, University of Messina. Chain of Being; Linguis-
tic Theories in British Seventeenth-Century Philosophy.

WILLIAM K. FRANKENA. Professor of Philoso-
phy, University of Michigan. Education.


DAVID FURLEY. Princeton University. Rationality
among the Greeks and Romans.

JOAN KELLY GADOL. City College, City Univer-
sity of New York. Universal Man.

PATRICK GARDINER. Fellow and Tutor of Phi-
losophy, Magdalen College, University of Oxford.
Causation in History.

Professor of Philosophy, George Washington Univer-
sity. Empathy.

HILDA GEIRINGER. Professor Emeritus of Math-
ematics, Harvard University. Probability: Objective

guished Professor of Economics, Vanderbilt University.
Utility and Value in Economic Thought.

DIETRICH GERHARD. Professor Emeritus,
Washington University and University of Cologne.
Periodization in History.

FELIX GILBERT. Professor, School of Historical
Studies, Institute for Advanced Study. Machiavellism;

LANGDON GILKEY. Professor of Theology, Di-
vinity School, University of Chicago. Idea of God since

MORRIS GINSBERG.† Progress in the Modern Era.

CLARENCE J. GLACKEN. Professor of Geogra-
phy, University of California at Berkeley. Environment
and Culture.

BENTLEY GLASS. Distinguished Professor of Biol-
ogy, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Genetic Continuity.

THOMAS A. GOUDGE. Professor of Philosophy,
University of Toronto. Evolutionism.

JOHN GRAHAM. Associate Professor, University
of Virginia. Ut pictura poesis.

ROBERT M. GRANT. Professor of New Testament
and Early Christianity, Divinity School, University of
Chicago. Gnosticism.

STEPHEN R. GRAUBARD. Professor of History,
Brown University. Democracy.

MOSHE GREENBERG. Professor of Bible,
Hebrew University. Prophecy in Hebrew Scripture.

G. M. A. GRUBE. University of Toronto. Rhetoric
and Literary Theory in Platonism.

GERALD J. GRUMAN, M.D. Special Research
Fellow, Wayne State University; Center for Studies of
Suicide Prevention; National Institute of Mental
Health. Longevity.

HENRY GUERLAC. Goldwin Smith Professor of
the History of Science, Cornell University. Newton
and the Method of Analysis.

JAMES GUTMANN. Professor Emeritus of Philos-
ophy, Columbia University. Romanticism in Post-
Kantian Philosophy.

JAMES HAAR. Professor of Music, New York Uni-
versity. Pythagorean Harmony of the Universe.

DAVID G. HALE. Associate Professor of English,
State University of New York at Brockport. Analogy
of the Body Politic.

tor of the Music Seminar, University of Heidelberg.
Music as a Demonic Art; Music as a Divine Art.

FREDERICK HARD. Professor of English Litera-
ture, University of California at Santa Cruz. Myth in
English Literature: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen-

DENY'S HAY. Professor of Medieval History, Uni-
versity of Edinburgh. Idea of Renaissance.

R. W. HEPBURN. Professor of Philosophy, Univer-
sity of Edinburgh. Cosmic Fall.

PETER HERDE. Professor of History and Director
of the Historical Seminar, University of Frankfurt.
Humanism in Italy.

RONALD HILTON. Professor, Stanford University;
Executive Director, California Institute of Interna-
tional Studies. Positivism in Latin America.

HENRY M. HOENIGSWALD. Professor of Lin-
guistics, University of Pennsylvania. Linguistics.

BANESH HOFFMANN. Professor of Mathematics,
Queens College, City University of New York. Relativ-

RAGNAR HÜISTAD. Assistant Professor, Univer-
sity of Uppsala. Cynicism.

Church History, McCormick Theological Seminary.
Heresy, Renaissance and Later.

SIDNEY HOOK. Professor Emeritus, New York
University. Marxism.

PAMELA M. HUBY. Senior Lecturer in Philosophy,
University of Liverpool. Epicureanism and Free


GRAHAM HUGHES. Professor of Law, New York
University. Concept of Law.

GEORG G. IGGERS. Professor of History, State
University of New York at Buffalo. Historicism.

DAVID IRWIN. Head of Department of History
of Art, University of Aberdeen. Neo-Classicism in Art.

CARL T. JACKSON. Associate Professor of History,
University of Texas, El Paso. Oriental Ideas in Ameri-
can Thought.

MAX JAMMER. Professor of Physics, Bar-Ilan Uni-
versity. Entropy; Indeterminacy in Physics.

H. W. JANSON. Professor of Fine Arts, New York
University. Chance Images.

IREDELL JENKINS. University of Alabama. Art
for Art's Sake.

HAROLD J. JOHNSON. Professor of Philosophy,
University of Western Ontario. Changing Concepts of
Matter from Antiquity to Newton.

DAVID JORAVSKY. Professor of History, North-
western University. Inheritance of Acquired Charac-

CHARLES H. KAHN. Professor of Philosophy,
University of Pennsylvania. Pre-Platonic Conceptions
of Human Nature.

WALTER KAISER. Professor of English and Com-
parative Literature, Harvard University. Wisdom of
the Fool.

ROBERT H. KARGON. Associate Professor of the
History of Science, The Johns Hopkins University.
Atomism in the Seventeenth Century.

STUART A. KAUFFMAN, M.D. Assistant Profes-
sor, Department of Theoretical Biology and Depart-
ment of Medicine, University of Chicago. Biological
Homologies and Analogies.

MAURICE KENDALL. Chairman, Scientific Con-
trol Systems, London. Chance.

ALVIN B. KERNAN. Professor of English, Yale
University. Satire.

R. K. KINDERSLEY. St. Anthony's College, Uni-
versity of Oxford. Marxist Revisionism from Bernstein
to Modern Forms.

ROBERT M. KINGDON. Professor of History,
University of Wisconsin, Madison. Determinism in
Theology: Predestination.

FRANK H. KNIGHT.Economic History.


HANS KOHN.Nationalism.

MILTON R. KONVITZ. Professor of Law and Pro-
fessor of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell Uni-
versity. Equity in Law and Ethics; Loyalty.

STEPHAN KÜRNER. Professor of Philosophy,
University of Bristol and Yale University. Necessity.

LEONARD KRIEGER. University Professor, Uni-
versity of Chicago. Authority.

WARREN F. KUEHL. Professor of History, Uni-
versity of Akron. International Peace.

ELISABETH LABROUSSE. Maître de Recherche,
Centre de la Recherche Scientifique. Religious Toler-

DONALD F. LACH. B. E. Schmitt Professor of
Modern History, University of Chicago. China in
Western Thought and Culture.

SANFORD A. LAKOFF. Professor of Political Sci-
ence, University of Toronto. Socialism from Antiquity
to Marx.

GORDON LEFF. Professor of History, University
of York. Heresy in the Middle Ages; Prophecy in the
Middle Ages.

ARTHUR LEHNING. International Institute of
Social History, Amsterdam. Anarchism.

SHIRLEY ROBIN LETWIN. Department of Phi-
losophy, London School of Economics. Certainty since
the Seventeenth Century.

HARRY LEVIN. Irving Babbitt Professor of Com-
parative Literature, Harvard University. Motif.

MICHAEL LEVIN. Lecturer, Department of Polit-
ical Science, University College of Wales. Social Con-

R. C. LEWONTIN. Louis Block Professor of Bio-
logical Sciences, University of Chicago. Biological

GEORGE LICHTHEIM. Historical and Dialectical

G. E. R. LLOYD. University Lecturer, University
of Cambridge. Analogy in Early Greek Thought.

LEROY E. LOEMKER. Professor Emeritus of Phi-
losophy, Emory University. Perennial Philosophy;

ANTHONY A. LONG. Reader in Greek and Latin,
University College, London. Psychological Ideas in
Antiquity; Ethics of Stoicism.

EDWARD E. LOWINSKY. Ferdinand Schevill Dis-
tinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago.
Musical Genius.

STEVEN LUKES. Fellow and Tutor in Politics,
Balliol College, University of Oxford. Types of Indi-

DAVID McLELLAN. Senior Lecturer in Politics,
University of Kent. Alienation in Hegel and Marx.

ROBERT McRAE. Professor, Department of Phi-
losophy, University of Toronto. Unity of Science from
Plato to Kant.

EDWARD H. MADDEN. Professor of Philosophy,
State University of New York at Buffalo. Civil Disobe-

WILLIAM A. MADDEN. Professor of English,
University of Minnesota. Victorian Sensibility and


ment of Latin and Philosophy, North Carolina Central
University. Platonism since the Enlightenment.

ANTHONY MANSER. Professor of Philosophy,
University of Southampton. Existentialism.

MICHAEL E. MARMURA. Professor, Department
of Islamic Studies, University of Toronto. Causation
in Islamic Thought.

GERHARD MASUR. Professor Emeritus of His-
tory, Sweet Briar College and University of Berlin.
Crisis in History.

ARMAND MAURER. Professor of Philosophy,
Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and Univer-
sity of Toronto. Analogy in Patristic and Medieval

ARNALDO MOMIGLIANO. University College,
London. Freedom of Speech in Antiquity; Impiety in
the Classical World.

D. H. MONRO. Professor of Philosophy, Monash
University. Relativism in Ethics; Utilitarianism.

MICHAEL MORAN. Lecturer in Philosophy,
Chairman of Intellectual History, School of European
Studies, University of Sussex. Metaphysical Imagina-

OSKAR MORGENSTERN. Professor of Econom-
ics, New York University. Game Theory.

HERBERT MORRIS. Professor of Law and Philos-
ophy, University of California at Los Angeles. Legal

LLOYD MOTZ. Professor, Columbia University.
Cosmology since 1850.

versity of Geneva; Secrétaire général des Rencontres
Internationales de Genève; Member of Executive
Council, Société Européenne de Culture. Psychological
Schools in European Thought.

THOMAS MUNRO. Professor Emeritus of Art,
Case Western Reserve University; formerly Curator of
Education, Cleveland Museum of Art. Impressionism
in Art.

MILTON C. NAHM. Professor of Philosophy,
Leslie Clark Professor of the Humanities, Bryn Mawr
College. Creativity in Art.

HAJIME NAKAMURA. University of Tokyo. Bud-

SEYYED HOSSEIN NASR. Professor of Philosophy
and Dean, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Tehran
University. Islamic Conception of Intellectual Life.

JOHN CHARLES NELSON. Professor, Columbia
University. Platonism in the Renaissance.

J. P. NETTL.Social Democracy in Germany and

field Trent Professor Emeritus, Department of English
and Comparative Literature, Columbia University.
Cosmic Voyages; Literary Attitudes Toward Mountains;
Newton's Opticks and Eighteenth-Century Imagina-
tion; Sublime in External Nature; Virtuoso.

KAI NIELSEN. Professor of Philosophy, University
of Calgary. Agnosticism.

HELEN F. NORTH. Professor of Classics, Swarth-
more College. Temperance (Sōphrosynē) and the Canon
of the Cardinal Virtues.

FRITZ NOVOTNY. Professor, formerly Director of
Üsterreichische Galerie, Vienna. Naturalism in Art.

English and Professor of Humanities in Psychiatry,
Saint Louis University. Ramism.

JANE OPPENHEIMER. Class of 1897 Professor of
Biology, Bryn Mawr College. Recapitulation.

fessor of Comparative Literature, University of Wis-
consin, Madison. Organicism.

MARTIN OSTWALD. Professor of Classics, Swarth-
more College and University of Pennsylvania. Ancient
Greek Ideas of Law.

gious Studies and Near Eastern Studies, University of
Toronto. Holy (The Sacred).

CLAUDE V. PALISCA. Professor of the History of
Music, Yale University. Music and Science.

R. R. PALMER. Professor of History, Yale Univer-
sity. Equality.

HELLMUT O. PAPPE. Professor Emeritus of Law,
Reader in the History of Social Thought, University
of Sussex. Enlightenment.

JOHN PASSMORE. Professor of Philosophy, Re-
search School of Social Sciences, Australian National
University. Perfectibility of Man.

C. A. PATRIDES. Reader in English Literature,
University of York. Hierarchy and Order.

JAROSLAV PELIKAN. Professor of Religious Stud-
ies, Yale University. Pietism.

STEPHEN C. PEPPER.Metaphor in Philosophy.

CHAIM PERELMAN. Professor, University of
Brussels; formerly Dean of the School of Philosophy
and Letters. Natural Law and Natural Rights.

R. S. PETERS. Professor of Philosophy of Edu-
cation, University of London Institute of Education.

SIMONE PÉTREMENT. Agrégée de Philosophie,
Docteur ès Lettres, Conservateur à la Bibliothèque
Nationale, Paris. Dualism in Philosophy and Religion.

JAMES PHILIP. Dean of Arts and Science,
Bishop's University. Pythagorean Doctrines to 300 B.C.

MARTIN PINE. Assistant Professor of History,
Queens College, City University of New York. Double


DAVID PINGREE. Professor, Brown University.


RICHARD H. POPKIN. Professor of Philosophy,
Lehman College, City University of New York. Skepti-
cism in Modern Thought.

GAINES POST. Professor Emeritus of History,
Princeton University. Ancient Roman Ideas of Law;
Medieval and Renaissance Ideas of Nation.

D. D. RAPHAEL. Professor of Philosophy, Univer-
sity of Reading. Moral Sense.

JOHN RATTÉ. Associate Professor of History, Am-
herst College. Modernism in the Christian Church.

MOSTAFA REJAI. Professor of Political Science,
Miami University. Ideology.

MELVIN RICHTER. Professor of Political Science,
Hunter College and Graduate Center, City University
of New York. Despotism.

VASCO RONCHI. Professor, President of National
Institute of Optics, Arcetri. Optics and Vision.

THEODORE ROPP. Professor of History, Duke
University. War and Militarism.

EDWARD ROSEN. City College, City University
of New York. Cosmology from Antiquity to 1850.

PAOLO ROSSI. Professor, Università degli Studi di
Firenze. Baconianism.

sor of Philosophy, Hebrew University. Volksgeist;

R. A. SAYCE. Reader in French Literature, Worces-
ter College, University of Oxford. Style in Literature.


HERBERT W. SCHNEIDER. Professor Emeritus
of Philosophy, Columbia University and Claremont
Graduate School. Religious Enlightenment in Ameri-
can Thought.

PIERRE-MAXIME SCHUHL. Professor, Sorbonne;
Membre de L'Institut de France. Myth in Antiquity.

CHRISTOPH J. SCRIBA. Professor, Lehrstuhl für
Geschichte der exakten Wissenschaften und der Tech-
nik an der Technischen, University of Berlin. Number.

JERROLD E. SEIGEL. Associate Professor of His-
tory, Princeton University. Virtù in and since the

JEAN SEZNEC. Marshal Foch Professor of French
Literature, University of Oxford. Myth in the Middle
Ages and the Renaissance.

JUDITH N. SHKLAR. Harvard University. General

WALTER SIMON.Positivism in Europe to 1900.

W. SLUCKIN. Professor of Psychology, University
of Leicester. Imprinting and Learning Early in Life.

T. B. SMITH. Professor, University of Edinburgh.
Legal Precedent.

BORIS SOUVARINE. Institut d'Histoire Sociale.
Ideology of Soviet Communism.

PIERRE SPEZIALI. Professor of Mathematics,
Collège Voltaire de Genève; also associated with Uni-
versity of Geneva. Classification of the Sciences.

LEWIS W. SPITZ. Professor of History, Stanford
University. Reformation.

WERNER STARK. Professor of Sociology, Fordham
University. Casuistry.

PETER N. STEARNS. Professor, Rutgers, The State
University, New Brunswick. Protest Movements.

PETER STEIN. Regius Professor of Civil Law, Uni-
versity of Cambridge. Common Law.

TOM TASHIRO. City College, City University of
New York. Ambiguity as Aesthetic Principle.

W. TATARKIEWICZ. Professor, University of War-
saw; Member of Polish Academy of Sciences and Let-
ters; Visiting Mills Professor, University of California
at Berkeley (1967-68). Classification of the Arts; Form
in the History of Aesthetics; Mimesis.

OWSEI TEMKIN. Professor Emeritus of the His-
tory of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University.
Health and Disease.

E. N. TIGERSTEDT. Professor of Comparative
Literature, University of Stockholm. Poetry and Poetics
from Antiquity to the Mid-Eighteenth Century.

GIORGIO TONELLI. Professor of Philosophy,
State University of New York at Binghamton. Genius
from the Renaissance to 1770; Ideal in Philosophy from
the Renaissance to 1780; Taste in the History of Aes-
thetics from the Renaissance to 1770.

HELEN P. TRIMPI. Lecturer in English, Stanford
University. Demonology; Witchcraft.

CHARLES TRINKAUS. University of Michigan.
Renaissance Idea of the Dignity of Man.

RADOSLAV A. TSANOFF. McManis Professor of
Philosophy, Rice University. Problem of Evil.

ERNEST TUVESON. Professor of English, Univer-
sity of California at Berkeley. Alienation in Christian
Theology; Millenarianism.

HÉLÈNE L. TUZET. Doctor in Comparative Lit-
erature, University of Poitiers. Cosmic Images.

FRANCIS LEE UTLEY. Professor of English, Ohio
State University. Myth in Biblical Times.

HENRY G. VAN LEEUWEN. Professor of Philoso-
phy, Hanover College. Certainty in Seventeenth-
Century Thought.

A. G. M. VAN MELSEN. Professor of Philos-
ophy, President of the University, University of
Nijmegen. Atomism: Antiquity to the Seventeenth

ARAM VARTANIAN. Professor of French, New
York University. Man-Machine from the Greeks to the
Computer; Spontaneous Generation.


RUDOLF VIERHAUS. Professor, Director of Max-
Planck-Institut für Geschichte, Göttingen. Con-

KURT VON FRITZ. Professor Emeritus, University
of Munich. The Influence of Ideas on Ancient Greek

PETER VORZIMMER. Professor of History, Tem-
ple University. Inheritance through Pangenesis.

JEAN WAHL. Professor, Sorbonne. Irrationalism in
the History of Philosophy.

WILLIAM A. WALLACE. Professor of History and
Philosophy of Science. The Catholic University of
America. Experimental Science and Mechanics in the
Middle Ages.

Hutchins Distinguished Service Professor, Department
of Romance Languages, University of Chicago. Rheto-
ric after Plato.

JULIUS WEINBERG.Abstraction in the Forma-
tion of Concepts; Causation.

HERBERT WEISINGER. Professor of English,
Dean of the Graduate School, State University of New
York at Stony Brook. Renaissance Literature and His-

ULRICH WEISSTEIN. Professor of German and
of Comparative Literature, Indiana University. Ex-
pressionism in Literature.

RENÉ WELLEK. Sterling Professor of Compara-
tive Literature, Yale University. Baroque in Literature;
Classicism in Literature; Literary Criticism; Evolution
of Literature; Literature and Its Cognates; Periodiza-
tion in Literary History; Realism in Literature; Ro-
manticism in Literature; Symbol and Symbolism in

RULON WELLS. Yale University. Uniformitari-
anism in Linguistics.

G. J. WHITROW. University of London. Time and

PHILIP P. WIENER. Editor, Journal of the History
of Ideas,
Temple University. Pragmatism.

RAYMOND L. WILDER. Professor Emeritus, Uni-
versity of Michigan. Relativity of Standards of Mathe-
matical Rigor.

LEONARD G. WILSON. Professor of the History
of Medicine, University of Minnesota. Uniformitari-
anism and Catastrophism.

RUDOLF WITTKOWER.Genius: Individualism
in Art and Artists.

JOHN W. YOLTON. Professor and Chairman, De-
partment of Philosophy, York University, Toronto. Ap-
pearance and Reality.

ROBERT M. YOUNG. Director, Wellcome Unit for
the History of Medicine, Fellow of King's College,
University of Cambridge. Association of Ideas.