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1 occurrence of roughing it
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The persecutions which the Mormons suffered so long—and which they
consider they still suffer in not being allowed to govern themselves—they
have endeavored and are still endeavoring to repay. The now almost forgotten
“Mountain Meadows massacre” was their work. It was very famous
in its day. The whole United States rang with its horrors. A few items
will refresh the reader's memory. A great emigrant train from Missouri
and Arkansas passed through Salt Lake City and a few disaffected Mormons
joined it for the sake of the strong protection it afforded for their escape.
In that matter lay sufficient cause for hot retaliation by the Mormon chiefs.
Besides, these one hundred and forty-five or one hundred and fifty unsuspecting
emigrants being in part from Arkansas, where a noted Mormon
missionary had lately been killed, and in part from Missouri, a State remembered
with execrations as a bitter persecutor of the saints when they
were few and poor and friendless, here were substantial additional grounds
for lack of love for these wayfarers. And finally, this train was rich, very
rich in cattle, horses, mules and other property—and how could the Mormons
consistently keep up their coveted resemblance to the Israelitish tribes and
not seize the “spoil” of an enemy when the Lord had so manifestly
“delivered it into their hand?”

Wherefore, according to Mrs. C. V. Waite's entertaining book, “The
Mormon Prophet,” it transpired that—

“A `revelation' from Brigham Young, as Great Grand Archee or God,
was dispatched to President J. C. Haight, Bishop Higbee and J. D. Lee
(adopted son of Brigham), commanding them to raise all the forces they
could muster and trust, follow those cursed Gentiles (so read the revelation),
attack them disguised as Indians, and with the arrows of the Almighty make
a clean sweep of them, and leave none to tell the tale; and if they needed
any assistance they were commanded to hire the Indians as their allies,
promising them a share of the booty. They were to be neither slothful nor
negligent in their duty, and to be punctual in sending the teams back to
him before winter set in, for this was the mandate of Almighty God.”


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The command of the “revelation” was faithfully obeyed. A large party
of Mormons, painted and tricked out as Indians, overtook the train of emigrant
wagons some three hundred miles south of Salt Lake City, and made
an attack. But the emigrants threw up earth works, made fortresses of their
wagons and defended themselves gallantly and successfully for five days!
Your Missouri or Arkansas gentleman is not much afraid of the sort of
scurvy apologies for “Indians” which the southern part of Utah affords.
He would stand up and fight five hundred of them.

At the end of the five days the Mormons tried military strategy. They
retired to the upper end of the “Meadows,” resumed civilized apparel,
washed off their paint, and then, heavily armed, drove down in wagons to
the beleaguered emigrants, bearing a flag of truce! When the emigrants
saw white men coming they threw down their guns and welcomed them
with cheer after cheer! And, all unconscious of the poetry of it, no doubt,
they lifted a little child aloft, dressed in white, in answer to the flag of

The leaders of the timely white “deliverers” were President Haight and
Bishop John D. Lee, of the Mormon Church. Mr. Cradlebaugh, who served
a term as a Federal Judge in Utah and afterward was sent to Congress from
Nevada, tells in a speech delivered in Congress how these leaders next proceeded:

“They professed to be on good terms with the Indians, and represented
them as being very mad. They also proposed to intercede and settle the
matter with the Indians. After several hours parley they, having (apparently)
visited the Indians, gave the ultimatum of the savages; which was,
that the emigrants should march out of their camp, leaving everything behind
them, even their guns. It was promised by the Mormon bishops that
they would bring a force and guard the emigrants back to the settlements.
The terms were agreed to, the emigrants being desirous of saving the lives
of their families. The Mormons retired, and subsequently appeared with
thirty or forty armed men. The emigrants were marched out, the women
and children in front and the men behind, the Mormon guard being in the
rear. When they had marched in this way about a mile, at a given signal
the slaughter commenced. The men were almost all shot down at the first
fire from the guard. Two only escaped, who fled to the desert, and were
followed one hundred and fifty miles before they were overtaken and
slaughtered. The women and children ran on, two or three hundred yards
further, when they were overtaken and with the aid of the Indians they
were slaughtered. Seventeen individuals only, of all the emigrant party,
were spared, and they were little children, the eldest of them being only
seven years old. Thus, on the 10th day of September, 1857, was consummated
one of the most cruel, cowardly and bloody murders known in our

The number of persons butchered by the Mormons on this occasion was
one hundred and twenty.

With unheard-of temerity Judge Cradlebaugh opened his court and proceeded


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to make Mormondom answer for the massacre. And what a spectacle
it must have been to see this grim veteran, solitary and alone in his pride
and his pluck, glowering down on his Mormon jury and Mormon auditory,
deriding them by turns, and by turns “breathing threatenings and slaughter!”

An editorial in the Territorial Enterprise of that day says of him and of
the occasion:

“He spoke and acted with the fearlessness and resolution of a Jackson;
but the jury failed to indict, or even report on the charges, while threats of
violence were heard in every quarter, and an attack on the U. S. troops intimated,
if he persisted in his course.

“Finding that nothing could be done with the juries, they were discharged,
with a scathing rebuke from the judge. And then, sitting as a committing
magistrate, he commenced his task alone. He examined witnesses, made
arrests in every quarter, and created a consternation in the camps of the
saints greater than any they had ever witnessed before, since Mormondom
was born. At last accounts terrified elders and bishops were decamping to
save their necks; and developments of the most startling character were
being made, implicating the highest Church dignitaries in the many murders
and robberies committed upon the Gentiles during the past eight years.”

Had Harney been Governor, Cradlebaugh would have been supported in
his work, and the absolute proofs adduced by him of Mormon guilt in this
massacre and in a number of previous murders, would have conferred gratuitous
coffins upon certain citizens, together with occasion to use them.
But Cumming was the Federal Governor, and he, under a curious pretense
of impartiality, sought to screen the Mormons from the demands of justice.
On one occasion he even went so far as to publish his protest against the use
of the U. S. troops in aid of Cradlebaugh's proceedings.

Mrs. C. V. Waite closes her interesting detail of the great massacre with
the following remark and accompanying summary of the testimony—and
the summary is concise, accurate and reliable:

“For the benefit of those who may still be disposed to doubt the guilt of
Young and his Mormons in this transaction, the testimony is here collated
and circumstances given which go not merely to implicate but to fasten
conviction upon them by `confirmations strong as proofs of Holy Writ:'

“1. The evidence of Mormons themselves, engaged in the affair, as shown
by the statements of Judge Cradlebaugh and Deputy U. S. Marshal Rodgers.

“2. The failure of Brigham Young to embody any account of it in his
Report as Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Also his failure to make any
allusion to it whatever from the pulpit, until several years after the occurrence.

“3. The flight to the mountains of men high in authority in the Mormon
Church and State, when this affair was brought to the ordeal of a judicial

“4. The failure of the Deseret News, the Church organ, and the only
paper then published in the Territory, to notice the massacre until several


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months afterward, and then only to deny that Mormons were engaged
in it.

“5. The testimony of the children saved from the massacre.

“6. The children and the property of the emigrants found in possession
of the Mormons, and that possession traced back to the very day after the

“7. The statements of Indians in the neighborhood of the scene of the
massacre: these statements are shown, not only by Cradlebaugh and
Rodgers, but by a number of military officers, and by J. Forney, who was,
in 1859, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory. To all these
were such statements freely and frequently made by the Indians.

“8. The testimony of R. P. Campbell, Capt. 2d Dragoons, who was sent
in the Spring of 1859 to Santa Clara, to protect travelers on the road to
California and to inquire into Indian depredations.”