University of Virginia Library


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B. Appendix B


By Nan Ashton Glenn

During the previous season substructures numbered 1 to 3 had
been cleared; these lay west of, and roughly parallel to, rooms 2, 22,
and 20. The substructures excavated in 1937 were numbered 4, 5, and
6 (see Fig. 14), and lay, respectively, to the west of and parallel to

Figure 14—Ground Plan of Bc 50
Substructure Excavations

room 21, beneath room 21,
and beneath room 20. Such
a designation can be only
partially correct, since the
substructures were larger
than those rooms of the
later period and their boundaries
extended beyond the
more regular ones of the
superstructures, but may
serve merely as a means of
locating such rooms.

Hibben has summarized
the outstanding characteristics
of the substructures
as learned from the
1936 excavation.[1] The 1937
excavation adds more specific
evidence as to doors,
firepits, burials, and post
holes. The accompanying
room reports detail the
measurements and pottery

Roberts states that "there was no sharp and distinct break culturally
between the Late Basket Makers and the following periods."[2]
The substructures of Bc 50 show noticeable resemblances to, and
equally noticeable progress beyond, construction methods employed in
Basket Maker III culture. The slabs, used as linings for Basket
Maker pit houses at such sites as Shabik'eshchee Village, have become
incorporated as wall foundations in the Bc 50 substructure rooms. The
ground plan of these rooms, while rectangular in principle, varies


Page [167
widely from geometrical exactness. Rounded corners and walls built
on curved rather than straight lines are to be seen (for example, in
substructure 5, see Fig 14). Between substructures 4 and 5 was the
only example of a substructure doorway uncovered in Bc 50.

Substructure 4

Form.—The floor plan was irregularly rectangular.

Walls and Wall Sequence.—The foundation consisted of flat
stone slabs placed on edge. Above this the walls were of solid adobe
with unshaped stones occasionally included. A heavy layer of plaster
was applied over the entire wall, including the slab base. On the east,
south, and west walls remaining plaster covered the majority of the
surface. On the north wall little remained.

Overlying the east wall, and extending 3′ north from the southeast
corner, was a wall of masonry type assigned by Dr. Hawley to
Pueblo II (see description of room 21 for further details). The other
walls were topped by a windblown sandy deposition of natural source.
Two feet four inches from the southeast corner of the east wall the
plaster rounded a corner to form the side of a doorway of undeterminable
height and width.

Roofing.—No evidence of roofing was found with the exception
of one piece of hardened adobe, flattened on one side and rounded
on the other. It bore the imprint of sticks of 1″ diameter which were
laid in parallel lines.

Floors and Floor Sequence.—The floor level sloped from south to
north, the latter end being about 1′ lower than the former. The floor
surfacing was irregular, with sherds and rocks protruding through
the surface. The room contained no special features such as firepits,
post holes, or bins. Only one floor was apparent.

    Room Fill.

  • 1. Upper layer of natural deposition.—This was probably due to
    wind and rain action.

  • 2. Hard unamalgamated fill.—This began at an average depth of
    2′ 9″ from the top of the east wall and extended to 3′ 5″ from the
    top of the south wall and sloped correspondingly toward the north
    end of the room. Instead of hard, continuous fill this layer included
    many vacant spaces or cavities seeming to indicate former
    positions of caved-in roof material, although no tangible evidence
    such as rafters or bark was found.[3] This layer included no
    sherds but contained occasional thin flat slabs of stone and the
    piece of imprinted adobe mentioned above.

  • 168]

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  • 3. Loose sand fill.—For 6″ above the floor level, this contained many
    sherds and the majority of artifacts taken from the room.

  • 4. Floor level.


Animal Bones.—Comparatively few.

Artifacts.—Six smoothing stones, two manos, one bone awl.

Pottery Percentages

Floor Level  Room Fill 
Red Mesa B on W  38.05  15.01 
Lino Gray  30.32  32.22 
Exuberant Cor.  15.43  3.00 
Kana-a Gray  5.88  7.89 
Escavada B on W  4.25  35.07 
Gallup B on W  2.66  4.58 
Wingate B on R  2.66  .15 
Chaco B on W  1.06  .15 
Deadman's B on R  .94 
Chaco Cor.  .32 
Kana-a B on W  .32 
Sunset Red  .15 
Total number of sherds in sample  188  633 

Substructure 4 was tunneled through by many rodent burrows which crossed
both horizontal and vertical levels, and which may account for the presence of later
pottery types within the fill.

Substructure 5 (Underlying Room 21)

Form.—(See Fig. 14). The floor plan was roughly rectangular
with rounded corners. The east wall was missing since Kiva 2 was
cut through the substructure at this point.

Walls and Wall sequence.—The walls were of the Slab Base
Rubble type with small scattered rocks placed in abundant mortar.
The whole was heavily plastered and thick at the base, with slab
lengths from 1′ to 1′ 6″.

The north wall curved and the northern room corners were
rounded. The slab base varied in height from 6″ to 2′ 6″. Parts of
this wall had been broken out and there was evidence of much weathering.
The slab base of the south wall varied in height from 1′ to 2′ 6″;
the wall was plastered to a height of about 4′. From this wall, at a point
2′ 9″ from the southwest room corner, a curved partition of slabs set
in mortar extended 3′ into the room, partially enclosing the burial
found under the second substructure floor. The curved partition wall
stood as high as the substructure wall. Both the north and south
walls were cut at the east end by the wall of Kiva 2, and thus the
east-west dimension of the room is unknown.

The south wall and 3′ of the west wall—as far as the doorway (for
description of doorway see substructure 4)—were capped by superstructure
walls which at times broke away from the substructure


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walls to follow a more direct line. The unprotected north wall was
only a few feet in height and was topped by several feet of washed fill.

Roofing.—No evidence.

Floors, Floor Sequence, and Special Features.—Two substructure
floors were exposed, the first 2′ above the second (Fig. 15a). Between


B. Architectural Details (Profile)
of Substructure 6, Bc

the two was adobe fill showing no evidence of cultural remains for at
least the upper 18″ of the 2′.

In the first of the two substructure floors a firepit and several
post holes were uncovered. The firepit was 2′ 4″ in diameter, 9″ deep
and lined with slabs on bottom and sides. It contained ashes, sand, and
many charcoal pieces. Immediately below the firepit and encasing it
was a layer of carbonaceous shale which extended beneath the floor
of the room at this point. West of the firepit was a post hole 7″ in
diameter and 6″ deep, containing a log that stood several inches above
the top of the hole. There was a second post hole 2′ east of the firepit,
10″ long by 6″ wide and from 10″ to 1′ 2″ deep. The encased wooden
beam was held in place by encircling rocks, and by a flat rectangular
rock slab placed diagonally in the hole, perhaps as a wedge. Three
feet east of the second post hole was a row of smaller ones, standing
6″ apart and paralleling the rounded northeast corner of the room
2′ distant.

Condition.—The condition of substructure 5 was partially excellent,
partially poor, due to the fact that a superstructure had been
built over the west portion of the room, thus protecting the south wall
and portions of the west wall. Since this superstructure did not extend
the entire north-south length of substructure 5, the north portion was


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more exposed. Kiva 2 was cut through the east wall of the substructure.

    Room Fill.

  • 1. Loosely packed dirt. Found immediately below the superstructure
    floor, this 1′ 2″ layer contained sherds.

  • 2. Hard-packed adobe. A closely packed layer, barren of sherds,
    extended to within a few inches of the first substructure floor level.

  • 3. Soft dirt. This layer found 2″ to 3″ above the first substructure
    floor level was of unpacked dirt containing sherds, charcoal, and
    so forth.

  • 4. First substructure floor level.

  • 5. Carbonaceous shale. This thin layer was found beneath the first
    substructure floor level, dipping to encase the firepit.

  • 6. Hard fill. This barren layer extended 18″ below the first substructure
    floor level.

  • 7. Fill. A layer containing occupational remains, which extended 6″
    above the second substructure floor level.

  • 8. Second substructure floor level.

Burial.—A burial (Bc 50-60/30) was located 2′ 5″ from the southeast
corner and 3′ 6″ from the southwest corner under the lower floor
of the substructure. The skeleton, that of a child, was lying on its
left side. Although in an extended posture, the body had been somewhat
cramped in the short grave (41″ long). The burial paralleled
the south wall with head to the east and face to the south. The grave
was outlined in adobe and was covered by two large stone slabs. A
small Red Mesa jug with handle of twisted pottery coils was at the
head of the skeleton, and four or five sherds, presumably Lino Gray,
were found in association with it. Around the left wrist was a shell
bracelet. There were a few animal bones in the area above the skeleton.
Between the burial and the south wall lay a rock and wooden

Animal Bones.—A few in association with the skeleton.

Artifacts.—Two smoothing stones, one mano, one side-notched
projectile point, three bone awls and a perforated bone artifact fragment.


Page [171

Pottery Percentages

Level 1 in Room
Fill (immediately
below superstructure
Level 3 in Room
Fill (immediately
above first substructure
Level 7 in Room
Fill (immediately
above second substructure
Exuberant Cor.  29  14  32 
Red Mesa B on W  19  13 
Gallup B on W  16 
Lino Gray  14  16  28 
Escavada B on W  13  28  11 
Chaco B on W 
Deadman's B on W 
Kana-a Gray  16 
McElmo B on W 
Chaco Cor. 
Wingate B on R 
Total number of sherds
in sample 
62  60  43 

Substructure 6 (Underlying Room 20)

Form.—(See Fig. 14.) The form of the room was undetermined
for the excavation was incomplete. Only that portion of substructure
6 which was not directly overlaid by remaining superstructure walls
was excavated. This resulted in the clearing of an L-shaped floor

Walls.—The rocks were laid in fairly regular lines and plaster
was heavily applied. It was not determined whether slab bases were
present. Superstructure walls were superimposed over those of the
substructure. (See Fig. 15B.)

Roofing.—There was no evidence other than the imprints on two
blocks of adobe in the fill above the substructure floor. One of these
was curved to fit a small beam (?), and the other contained impressions
of small twigs laid in heterogeneous fashion.

Floors and Special Features.—Two feet below the superstructure
floor level was the first substructure floor. This was trenched through
to a depth of 3′ without finding other material.

On the west wall, 6′ 3″ from the northwest corner, was a bin of
slabs (Bin A), set in a ring of mortar and with plaster covering the
stones. This bin was approximately 3′ in diameter and varied in
height from 2″ to 9″. It contained two artifacts of petrified wood,
apparently hammerstones, slightly embedded in the floor level. The
ring of mortar in which the stones were set went entirely around the
bin, leaving but one gap. A second bin (Bin B) occurred in the northeast
section where the kiva wall cut across the room. It was also of
stone slabs set in adobe and the portion uncovered (only a part of the
bin) measured 3′ 1″ in circumference.


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An upright log approximately 4″ in diameter was uncovered 1′ 8″
from the edge of Bin A and 2′ 11″ from the west wall. This log came
from fill over which was standing a superstructure wall. The base of
the log rested upon a mano set into the substructure floor level with the
smooth, used side as a surface for supporting the wood. The beam
extended 23″ into the dirt fill above the floor. Its top end, which
showed weathering, was covered by masonry and plaster from the
superstructure wall foundations. Along this face the strata were

A second beam was found in similar circumstances on the east
face of the fill, 8′ 9″ from the northwest corner and 2′ 11″ from the
most outward portion of Bin A on the west wall. This beam terminated
at floor level. The post hole, 8″ by 10″ and almost rectangular, was
sunk into the floor level to a depth of 7″. The hole was lined with a
quarter to half inch layer of carbonaceous shale.

    Room Fill.

  • 1. Wind and water deposited fill. This extended 2′ below the superstructure
    level and contained adobe lumps (presumably from the
    roof), charcoal, and sherds.

  • 2. Floor level. This substructure floor was 2′ below the superstructure

  • 3. Hard adobe below substructure floor. A pit 2′ wide and 3′ deep
    was run from the east wall of fill to the bin, cutting through hard
    adobe barren of occupational evidence except for a single mano.

Burials.—There were none as far as work progressed.

Animal Bones.—Some.

Artifacts.—Four hammerstones, three smoothing stones, two
manos, one smoothing instrument of petrified wood, one bone awl, and
a slim tanged projectile point of obsidian.

Pottery Percentages.

Wall Sherds (north
wall of Room 20, extending
down into
Substructure 6) 
Room fill down to 2′
below Superstructure
Kana-a Gray  57 
McElmo B on W  14 
Exuberant Cor.  14 
Gallup B on W 
Sandstone B on O 
Lino Gray  24 
Red Mesa B on W  30 
Escavada B on W  30 
La Plata B on W 
Wingate B on R 
Abajo B on R 
Total number of sherds in sample  14  33 


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Superstructure Room 21

Form.—Rectangular (for plan see 1936 report).[4]

Walls.—The masonry was of stones set in roughly horizontal lines
in mortar. A thick plaster was spread on the walls and sloped out at
the bottom to curve into the floor. These walls were more even in
construction and more regular in line than those of the substructure.

Roofing.—No evidence.

Floor and Special Features.—The floor was smooth and level in
comparison with those of the substructures, but included no firepits
or post holes.

Immediately outside the east wall of the room, and paralleling
the southeast corner from the level of the superstructure floor, were
remnants of a wooden log, apparently socketed in earth and plaster.
The wood was decomposed.

A circular bin with a diameter of 2′ and a depth of 10″ was uncovered
8″ below the level of the superstructure floor, midway between
rooms 20 and 21. The stones forming the sides of this bin were plastered
over. In the center of the bin was a post hole 6″ in diameter.
The bin occurred between the room floor above and substructure floor

Three large ollas of Exuberant Corrugated were found 2′ 6″
below the surface of the superstructure floor. One was in the southwest
corner about 8″ from the south and west walls. The second was
3′ 10″ from the southwest corner, 4′ 10″ from the northwest corner,
and 1′ 6″ from the west wall. The third was in the southeast corner
touching the east wall and 4′ 6″ from the south wall. In the third olla
there was found a well-used mano. The other ollas contained only dirt

Room Fill.—At the time of excavation no fill was present above
the superstructure floor level except the soil that had washed in during
the winter.


Animal Bones.—Some.


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Pottery Percentages.

Floor Level of
Sherds in Superstructure
Lino Gray  18.49  14.02 
Red Mesa B on W  16.44  15.85 
Escavada B on W  16.44  19.51 
Exuberant Cor.  15.75  35.98 
Chaco Cor.  15.75 
Gallup B on W  7.53  6.10 
Kana-a Gray  6.85  3.05 
McElmo B on W  1.37  3.05 
Wingate B on R  1.37  .61 
Sunset Red  .61 
Deadman's B on W  .61 
Total number of sherds in sample  146  164 

Brand, et al., 1937, Map IV, p. 70.


Brand, et al., 1937, pp. 81-84.


Roberts, 1930, p. 149.