University of Virginia Library


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Literary Department.



The subjects taught in this school are the Latin Language
and Literature, with the history of Rome. The School is
divided into three classes: Junior, Intermediate and Senior.

The Text-Books are—

  • 1. Junior Class—Cæsar, Ovid, Sallust.

  • 2. Intermediate Class—Cicero, Virgil, Terence, Livy.

  • 3. Senior Class—Cicero, Horace, Livy, Juvenal, Tacitus.

Grammars.—Zumpt's, Gildersleeve's, Harrison's Exposition
of the Laws of the Latin Language.

Lexicons.—Andrew's, or Freund's Leverett.

History.—Browne's Roman Literature, Liddell's Rome,
Long's Atlas.

Instruction is given by lectures and by examinations upon
the portions of text assigned for recitation. The exercises
of rendering Latin into English, and English into Latin,
in writing, constitute a prominent feature in the course. In
addition to the portions of the several authors read in the
lecture room, a course of extra and parallel reading is
required in each class.

Sanskrit.—The Professor of Latin will also give instruction
in Sanskrit.

Text-Books.—Monier Williams' Grammar, Benfey's Lexicon,
selections from the Mahâ-Bhârata.



The School is divided into three classes: Junior, Intermediate,
and Senior.

The Junior Class is intended especially for those who
desire to make a thorough review of the inflections and to


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acquire a practical familiarity with the great principles of
the language. The only author read in this class is Xenophon.

Grammar.—Kühner's Elementary.

The authors read in the Intermediate Class are principally:
Lysias, Xenophon, Herodotus, Homer, and Demosthenes;
and in the Senior, Thucydides, Sophocles, Euripides,
and Plato.

Grammars.—Hadley's, Kühner's, Goodwin's Moods and

Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, Smith's History of Greece,
Browne's Greek Literature.

A private course of parallel and preparatory reading is
also prescribed for each class.

The Post Graduate Department has been instituted for
the benefit of graduates and others who wish to pursue a
more extended course of reading. The authors read in this
department are such as are either by their form or subjects
less suited for the regular school, e. g., Æschylus, Aristophanes,
and Aristotle.

Hebrew.—The Professor of Greek will also give instruction
in Hebrew whenever the demand for such instruction
is sufficient to make the institution of a course of lectures


In the examinations of candidates for graduation in Latin
and Greek, the passages given for the written translations
are selected, not from the portions of authors which have
been read and explained in the lecture room, but from the
classic writers at will.



The subjects taught in this School are:

1. The French, German, Italian, and Spanish languages.

2. The Literature of these languages, and the History of
each idiom, embracing the general principles of the formation
and growth of languages, and of Comparative Grammar
and Philology.

3. The Anglo-Saxon language, and, in connection with
it, the History and Laws of the English language.

Graduation in French and German is required for the
degree of A. M.


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Text-Books.French — Junior Class—The Professor's
Grammar and First Reader, Télémaque, Charles XII.

Senior Class—The Professor's Grammar, Advanced Reader,
Molière, Racine, Voltaire, Saintine's Picciola, Spiers
and Surenne's Dictionary.

German.—Junior Class—Otto's Grammar, Whitney's
Reader, Schiller's William Tell.

Senior Class—Whitney's Grammar, Adler's Dictionary,
Schiller's Works, Gœthe's Autobiography, Jean Paul's
Walt and Vult.

Spanish.—The Professor's Grammar, Seoane's Dictionary,
Velasquez' Reader, Don Quixote, Calderon's El Principe

Italian.—Bacchi's Grammar, Monti's Reader, Manzoni's
I Promessi Sposi, Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, Pellico's
Le Mie Prigioni, Dictionary.

Anglo-Saxon.—Shute's Manual of Anglo-Saxon, The Professor's
Studies in English.



Books requisite for the Class in Mental Philosophy:

  • 1. Hamilton's Lectures on Metaphysics.

  • 2. Hamilton's Lectures on Logic.

  • 3. Schuyler's Principles of Logic.

  • 4. Cousin's True, Beautiful, and Good.

  • 5. Jouffroy's Ethics.

  • 6. Stewart's Active and Moral Powers.

  • 7. Alexander's Moral Science.

  • 8. Butler's Analogy and Sermons.

The above books are used in the order named.

Three lectures each week are given.



This School is divided into two distinct classes—one of
History, and one of Literature and Rhetoric. To each, two
Lectures in the week are regularly devoted; but exercises
in literary composition are required from the members of
the Literary Class. Each study may be pursued separately.


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In the Historical Class the successions, revolutions, and
various aspects of the principal nations of the world are
considered in such a manner as to afford a general and connected
view of the progress of political and social organizations.
Institutions and laws are noted as the manifestations
of different phases of society; an attempt is made to discover
and elucidate the conditions of historical advancement, and
to refer the changes of nations and governments to the operation
of regular principles.

In the absence of appropriate Text-Books, the following
are employed for study and reference:

Schmitz's Manual of Ancient History; Smith's History of
Greece; Gibbon, Abridged by Smith; Taylor's Manual of
Modern History.

For reference: Long's Ancient Atlas; Appleton's (College)
Atlas, or Chambers' Atlas; Blair's Chronology (Bohn's

In the Class of Literature and Rhetoric, the English
Language, English Composition, Rhetoric and the English
Classics, with the History of English Literature, are studied.

The origin, growth and philological peculiarities of the
Language are considered; the various influences, domestic
and external, by which it has been brought to its present
condition are explained; the general principles of Rhetoric
and Criticism are taught; the lives of the most eminent
authors in the language are treated in their historical order
and connection; and the critical examination and appreciation
of their chief productions occupy much of the time of
the student. The class will also be required to practice
Literary Composition.

Text-Books in this department are very deficient. The
following will be used for the present:

Angus's Hand Book of the English Tongue; Jamieson's
Grammar of Rhetoric; Shaw's Complete Manual of English
Literature, Ed. Smith and Tuckerman; Student's Specimens
of English Literature, Ed. Shaw and Smith, London:

Shakspeare's Complete Works; Milton's Poetical Works.

For instruction in Oratory or spoken composition, those
portions of Dr. Broadus's Treatise on the Preparation and
Delivery of Sermons, which are appropriate to secular purposes,
are specially commended.


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In the Class of Political Economy, temporarily connected
with this School, the Text-Books, heretofore and still used,
are Say's Political Economy and Mill's (J. S.) Political
Economy. Two lectures a week are given.



This School embraces two distinct departments or courses:

  • 1. Pure Mathematics.

  • 2. Mixed Mathematics.

I. Pure. Mathematics.—In the course of Pure Mathematics
there are three classes, Junior, Intermediate and

In the Junior Class are studied the Theory of Arithmetical
Operations and Notation, Algebra, Geometry and
Geometrical Conic Sections, with discussions of the Ancient
Geometrical Analysis, the Theory of Transversals, and other
subjects of Modern Geometry. The preparation desirable
for this class is the thorough study of Arithmetic, of Algebra
through Equations of the Second Degree, and of the first
four books of Legendre or Euclid.

In the Intermediate Class the studies are Plane and
Spherical Trigonometry with Applications, Analytical Geometry
of two dimensions, the Theory of Equations and
Elements of Descriptive Geometry.

In the Senior Class the subjects of study are Analytical
Geometry of three Dimensions, the Differential and Integral
Calculus with applications to the Theory of Probabilities,
and the Determination of Mean Values and Centres of
Gravity, and the Calculus of Variations. Lectures are given
to this class on the History of Mathematics, and on some
points in Controversial Mathematics, with brief discussions
of the elements of Trilinear Coördinates, of the Theory of
Determinants, the Theory of Complex Functions, and of the
principles of the Method of Quaternions.

Text-Books in Pure Mathematics:

1. Junior Class—Venable's Higher Arithmetic, Todhunter's
Algebra, Legendre's Geometry. For reference and
examples, Pott's Euclid, Taylor's Conic Sections.


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2. Intermediate Class—Snowball's Trigonometry, Law's
Logarithms, Puckle's Conic Sections (Analytical Geometry),
Church's Descriptive Geometry. For reference, Todhunter's
Theory of Equations.

3. Senior Class—Aldis' Solid Geometry, Courtenay's
Calculus, Todhunter's Differential and Integral Calculus.

II. Mixed Mathematics.—This course is designed for
those students who may desire to prosecute their studies
beyond the limits of the Pure Mathematics. It embraces
Applications of the Differential and Integral Calculus to
selected portions of Mechanics, Physics and Physical Astronomy.
There is one class in the Mixed Mathematics.

The instruction in each class in the School of Mathematics
is conveyed partly by lectures and partly by the systematic
study of approved text-books, the student being assisted by
full and frequent explanations from the Professor, and being
constantly subjected to rigid examinations. The progress
of the student in each class is also tested by his being
required to perform written exercises, in which the principles
acquired are applied to the solution of particular problems.

Any student entering the school has the privilege of
attending all or any of the classes, and if prepared to enter
an advanced class, may often find it highly advantageous
to review his previous studies by attendance on a lower class

In the Junior Class there are three lectures each week;
in the Intermediate Class, two lectures each week; in the
Senior Class, three lectures each week.

In the Class of Mixed Mathematics, three lectures each



There are three classes in this School.

1. The Junior or General Class, which meets three times
each week throughout the session of nine months. The
object of the course of lectures to this class is to furnish the
student with a comprehensive view of Modern Physics, and
to make him familiar with its methods of investigation.
With the design of laying a thoroughly scientific basis for
the course, a large space is given at the outset to the discussion
of the cardinal doctrines of motion and force. These
doctrines are established, and their leading consequences


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are traced, without the use of mathematical symbols.
Guided by these truths, the teacher discusses, in the light
of experiment, the structure of matter according to the
received atomic hypotheses, and the equilibrium and motion
of solids and fluids. These topics, with various applications,
occupy the first half of the course of lectures.

The remainder of the course is devoted to Molecular
Physics, and treats of Capillarity, Osmose, Wave Motion,
Sound, Light, Heat and Electricity. In this, as in the
previous portion of the lectures, the established laws of
motion and force are kept steadily in view, to convince the
student that the entire body of Physics is a coherent and
harmonious system of mechanical truth.

Text-Book.—Silliman's Physics.

2. The Senior Class.—This class meets twice a week, and
studies Mechanics and Astronomy.

Text-Books.—Parkinson's Mechanics, Norton's Astronomy,
Lockyer's Astronomy.


3. These subjects are assigned to a separate class, which
the members of the other classes in the School may attend
without payment of an additional fee. In this class the
lectures commence with General Mineralogy, which is treated
with especial reference to Geology, to which it is designed
to be an introduction. In the lectures on Geology, the
specific identity of ancient and modern Geological causes
is pointed out; the present action of these causes, whether
atmospheric, aqueous or igneous, is considered, and their
effects in the past history of the Earth are examined. The
illustrations are drawn, as far as practicable, from the Geological
structure of Virginia.

The students have an opportunity of familiarizing themselves
with the minerals, rocks and fossils exhibited in the

Text-Books.—Dana's Manuals of Mineralogy and Geology.

Class of Practical Physics.—Arrangements are now
making to accommodate those students who, expecting to
be teachers of Science, or for other reasons, desire to acquaint
themselves practically with the details of Physical Manipulation.
These accommodations will, it is hoped, be enlarged
as the demand for them augments. The course of instruction
will be partly experimental and partly theoretical. For
the present, the subjects presented will be these:


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A. Experimental.—1. Study of the Construction, Management
and Preservation of Physical Apparatus. The
student will take apart, examine and put together various
philosophical instruments, and will carefully repeat with
them the experiments performed in the lecture room.

2. Use of "Instruments of Precision."—Measurement of
length, of differences of altitude, of volume; Calibration
of tubes; Specific Gravity of solids and liquids;
Measurement of small intervals of time by revolving
mirror; of number of vibrations of sounding bodies by
Syren, Monochord and revolving mirror or screen; of Curvature
and focal distances of mirrors and lenses; Manipulation
and use of the Telescope, Microscope and Spectroscope;
Daily Observations with Meteorological Instruments;
Determination of the errors of instruments.

B. Theoretical.—Reduction of Observations; Interpolation;
Graphical representation of results; Calculation,
from a series of measurements of a quantity, of its most
probable value, and of the degree of precision attained;
Essays on prescribed physical topics.



The course of lectures in this School commences with
such an exposition of the phenomena and laws of Heat,
Light and Electricity, as is rendered necessary by their
relations to chemical changes and chemical theories.

The subject of Chemistry proper is then taken up and
presented in the following order:

1. The history of the Metalloids and their combinations
with each other, and, in connection therewith, the exposition
of the principles of the Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols
and Notation.

2. The general principles of Chemical Philosophy—
including the Laws of Combination, the Atomic Theory and
Theory of Volumes, Simple and Current Affinity, &c.

3. The Metals—their combinations with the Metalloids,
and their saline combinations.

4. Organic Chemistry—including the general principles
of Organic Analysis, and the detailed consideration of the
series of Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, Ethers, Organic Acids
and Bases, &c.


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The processes for detecting Poisons, and the means of
counteracting their effects, are presented in their proper
connections; and throughout the course the applications of
the facts and principles of Chemistry to Medicine, Agriculture
and the Arts are duly noticed. The whole subject is
presented in the lights of the modern Theories of the science,
which have recently gained so strong a foothold throughout
the Chemical world—the object being to place the student
in a position not only to enter, understandingly, upon any
of the practical applications of the science to which his
attention may be turned, but to keep pace with its development
and progress.

Text-Book.—Fownes' Chemistry, last edition.



The School is divided into three classes:

1. Junior Class.—Theory and use of Engineering Instruments[1] , Land Surveying[1] and Levelling[1] , Construction of
Roads, Railroads, Canals and Tunnels, Spherical Astronomy
and Geodesy, Drainage and Irrigation, General Theory of
Building, including Building Materials[1] , Framing[1] , and
Masonry[1] , General Theory of Projections[1] , Orthogonal and
Oblique Projections, including Orthogonal and Oblique
Projections of Shades and Shadows[1] , Topographical Drawing[1]
, Constructive and Free-hand Drawing[1] , Drawing of
Ornaments, etc., Field Practice[1] .

Text-Books.—Notes of the Professor.

2. Intermediate Class.—General Theory of Building continued,
embracing: Lateral Pressure of Earth[1] , Retaining
Walls[1] , Piers, Arches, Foundations above ground and
under water[1] , Strength of Materials and its practical application
to entire Constructions[1] , Roofs and Spires[1] , Private
and Public Buildings, Warming and Ventilation of Buildings,
Wooden Bridges, in particular American Wooden
Bridges, Hydraulic Engineering, Construction of Wears and
Locks, River Improvements, Harbors, Supply of Cities
and Towns with Water, Sewerage, Axonometric Projections,


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including Axonometric Projections of Shades and Shadows[1] ,
Perspective, including Perspective Projections of Shades and
Shadows[1] , Stone Cutting, Orders and Styles of Architecture,
Free-hand Drawing continued, Architectural Drawing and

Text-Books.—Notes of the Professor.

3. Senior Class.—Stone and Iron Bridges, Movable
Bridges, Suspension Bridges, Mechanical Engineering, Machinery
and Machines, Steam Engines, Mining Engineering,
Construction of Furnaces and Founderies, Architectural and
Mechanical Drawing and Design, History of Architecture,
Higher Geodesy and Projection of Maps.

Text-Books.—Notes of the Professor.

4. Agricultural Department.—Use of Engineering Instruments,
Surveying and Levelling, Construction of Roads,
Drainage and Irrigation, General Theory of Building,
embracing: Building Materials, Framing, Masonry, Foundations,
Flooring, Roofing, Elementary Principles of the
Strength of Materials and their application in practice, Construction
of Simple. Wooden Bridges, Rural Architecture,
Machinery, Transmission and Change of Motion, General
Theory of Agricultural Implements and Machines, Drawing
and Design.

For the use of students in this school a commodious Drawing
Hall has been fitted up, and ample collections of Field
Instruments, and of Models illustrating the principles of
Hydraulic, Architectural, and Mechanical Engineering, have
been provided. These models, of admirable workmanship,
were constructed for the University in the widely-known
establishment of Schröder, of Darmstadt, Germany.


The subjects marked by the asterisk are those required for the students of
Mining Engineering in this School.



This School having been created with a view to the growing
demand for scientific knowledge in its applications to
the useful arts and to the development of the natural
resources of the country, the endeavor is made to render the
teachings of the Chair as practical as possible, while basing


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them upon sound principles of general science—thus presenting
the opportunity of preparation for such positions as
those of the miner and metallurgist, the chemical manufacturer,
the farmer, the dyer, bleacher, tanner, analytical
chemist, &c.

The system of instruction consists of a course of Lectures
upon Technical Chemistry, and a course of Practical Work
in the Chemical Laboratory, either of which may be attended

A. Lectures.

In connection with this course there is but one class, the
students attending which hear three lectures each week
throughout the session.

Amongst the more prominent subjects discussed are: The
production of Materials of very general application, including
the Metallurgy of Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Silver,
Gold, &c., the preparation and properties of Alloys, and
the processes of Electro-Metallurgy, the manufacture upon
the large scale of Acids, Alkalies, Salts, Glass and Porcelain;
the production and preservation of Food, including the
Chemistry of Agriculture, the processes of Bread Making,
Wine Making, Brewing and Distilling, the manufacture of
Sugar and Vinegar, the curing of Meat, the examination of
Potable Water, &c.; Chemical Arts relating to Clothing,
such as Bleaching, Dyeing, Calico Printing, Tanning, and
the preparation of India Rubber; the Chemistry of those
arts which afford us Shelter, embracing the examination of
Building Materials, Lime Burning, the manufacture of
Mortar and Cements, the Explosive Agents used in blasting,
as Gunpowder, Gun Cotton, Nitro-Glycerine, &c., Paints
and Varnishes, Disinfecting Materials, &c.; Heating and
the different kinds of Fuel and modes of
Burning them; Illumination by artificial means, Candles,
Lamps, the preparation of Petroleum, the manufacture of
Illuminating Gas, Matches; the Chemistry of Washing,
the preparation of Soap, Starch and Perfumes; the Chemical
relations of Printing and Writing, the manufacture of
Paper, Ink, Artists' Colors, Photographic Materials, &c.

The lectures are illustrated by suitable experiments, and
by such specimens, models, drawings, &c., as the various
subjects require. Amongst books which can be usefully
referred to in connection with different parts of this course
may be mentioned: Muspratt—Chemistry as Applied to Arts


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and Manufactures; Richardson and Watts—Chemical Technology;
Ure—Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures; Dumas—Traite
de Chimie Appliquee aux Arts;
Die chemische Technologie; Johnston—Agricultural Chemistry;
R. Hoffman—Theoretisch-practische Ackerbauchemie.

The subjects germane to Agriculture are treated of at different
periods of the lecture course, and cannot well be
brought together with a due regard to system, but the discussion
more particularly of soils, manures, &c., will be
brought forward in January or February (this year in February),
with a view to the convenience of farmers or others,
not regular students of the University, who may desire to
attend this portion of the course separately. Such persons
are freely invited to thus temporarily join the class for the
purpose in question.

B.—Laboratory Course.

This is arranged for three classes:

1. The First Class meets twice each week during the session,
on each occasion spending from two to four hours in
practical experiment in the Laboratory. A regularly arranged
course of practice in Chemical Manipulation is first
pursued; Qualitative Analysis is then taken up, and, the
means of detecting the most important chemical substances
having been learned, students are required to find out for
themselves by analysis the constituents of unknown materials
presented to them. Special attention is given to substances
having useful applications in the Arts or connected
with Agriculture. Towards the close of the session the elements
of Quantitative Analysis are taught, so far as the
limitation of time will permit.

2. The Laboratory will be open to the Second Class on
five days of each week during the whole of the working
hours of each day. A full course of instruction in Practical
Chemistry, including the Qualitative and Quantitative
Analysis of Ores, Soils, Manures, Technical Products, &c.,
will be given; and students will be assisted and encouraged
to undertake original research.

3. The Third class is one specially intended for students
of Medicine, and will meet for lessons of two hours each
once in the week for four months of the session. To this
class the practical applications of Chemistry to Medicine will
be taught—the detection of Poisons, chemical and microscopical
examination of Animal Products, urine, blood, &c.


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Amongst the works recommended to laboratory students
are: Fresenius—Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis;
H. Rose—Handbuch der analytischen Chemie (also in French
translation); Greville Williams—Handbook of Chemical
Wöhler—Examples for Practice in Chemical
Bolley—Handbuch der technisch-chemischen Untersuchungen;
Odling—Practical Chemistry for Medical

The Diploma of Graduate in this School will be conferred
upon such students as attend with diligence the Course of
Lectures and the Second Class of Laboratory Instruction,
and give evidence on examination of satisfactory attainments
in the same. For the requirements in this school for the
degrees in Mining and Civil Engineering, &c., reference is
made to the general notice of Degrees.

Very liberal provision has been made by the Board of
Visitors for the material means of illustration of the teachings
of this Chair. A new Laboratory building, of ample
size, specially designed for the purposes of working students,
has been erected, containing all necessary rooms, fitted with
double windows for the preservation of uniform temperature,
and amply supplied with gas, water, and all proper
laboratory fixtures. All needful apparatus, chemicals, minerals,
models, &c., and an unusually fine collection of
specimens illustrating the various arts and manufactures as
practiced on the great scale, have been procured from England,
France and Germany.

It may safely be said that the University of Virginia is
in this department inferior in material preparation for instruction
to no institution of learning in America, and, in
some respects, is probably superior to any.

With a portion of the means supplied by the donation of
the late Mr. Samuel Miller of Lynchburg, the Board of Visitors
of the University have established, in connection with
the Agricultural Department two scholarships, each of five
hundred dollars per annum, and tenable for two years (one
to be filled and one vacated in each year), to be competed
for at a special examination upon the whole of the subjects
taught in the department, to be held near the close of each
session—candidates for this examination to be already graduates
in the studies of the department. Scholars thus
elected will be expected to continue their studies during the
term of their scholarships, and to render such assistance in


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the minor duties of instruction, in the performance of
analyses and researches, &c., as may be required of them.
It is hoped that thus the opportunity may be afforded in
this school to such students of becoming thoroughly competent
chemists, worthy of public confidence in regard to all
the purposes which their special knowledge may subserve,
and that even during their tenure of the scholarships in
question they may be able to render useful service in the
examination and analysis of agricultural and other materials
of general interest. They will be subject to no charge for
tuition during the two years, but will be expected to defray
the expense of material they may consume in the Laboratory.