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The Jeffersonian cyclopedia;

a comprehensive collection of the views of Thomas Jefferson classified and arranged in alphabetical order under nine thousand titles relating to government, politics, law, education, political economy, finance, science, art, literature, religious freedom, morals, etc.;
3 occurrences of jefferson cyclopedia
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1987. DEATH PENALTY, Criminal Reform and.—[continued].
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3 occurrences of jefferson cyclopedia
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1987. DEATH PENALTY, Criminal Reform and.—[continued].

Beccaria, and other writers
on crimes and punishments, had satisfied
the reasonable world of the unrightfulness
and inefficacy of the punishment of crimes by
death; and hard labor on roads, canals and
other public works, had been suggested as a
proper substitute. The Revisors [of the Virginia
laws] had adopted these opinions; but
the general idea of our country had not yet
advanced to that point. The bill, therefore,
for proportioning crimes and punishments,
was lost in the House of Delegates by a majority
of a single vote. I learned afterwards,
that the substitute of hard labor in public,
was tried (I believe it was in Pennsylvania)
without success. Exhibited as a public spectacle,
with shaved heads and mean clothing.
working on the high roads, produced in the
criminals such a prostration of character,
such an abandonment of self-respect, as instead
of reforming, plunged them into the
most desperate and hardened depravity of
morals and character.—
Autobiography. Washington ed. i, 45. Ford ed., i, 62.